Rossi Blog Reader

This website tracks recent postings to Andrea Rossi's Journal of Nuclear Physics, sorting the entries with priority to Rossi's answers, which appear under each question.


• Email to Andrea Rossi - Journal Of Nuclear Physics
• Website comments to the Webmaster (who has no contact or connection with Rossi).
• Updated: 2024-02-28 23:30:10.043972Z

  1. Dear Andrea,
    Just an idea: fly the drone simultaneously with the EV demo. For example so that one drone follows the car, while another drone flies nonstop so that people can see it continuously. The drone brings in credibility quickly, within 1-2 hours, while the EV shows the practicality aspect of the invention to ordinary people. It would seem to me that, psychologically, such double demo would be very strong, more than either of them alone.
    regards, /pekka

  2. Andrea Rossi

    Pekka Janhunen:
    Thank you for the suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  3. Dr. Rossi,

    You mentioned that the EV demo might happen in September. Can you say if ECat NGUs will be available before the EV demo occurs?

    Warm regards,
    Greg

  4. Andrea Rossi

    Gregory Daigle:
    No,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  5. Wilfried

    Dear Andrea,

    if you are thinking about using it in drones, does this mean that the power-to-weight ratio of the NGU is significantly better than before?

    Best regards
    Wilfried

  6. Andrea Rossi

    Wilfried:
    We are studying.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  7. Anonymous

    Are you thinking to employ the Ecat to power drones ?

  8. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Yes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  9. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    On the envisioned 100W NGU units, a few questions:

    1. Is there a user available control to adjust the open circuit voltage?
    2. If an open circuit output voltage is less than 12 VDC, will more current be available to be consistent with 100W or will the current be limited to approximately 8.33 Amps and the total power will drop?
    3. If the output voltage can be adjusted by the user, how close must the voltages be for two or more units to be run in parallel?

  10. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for the suggestion: I pass it on to the responsible expert on the matter,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  11. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    The below referenced Position Reporting system

    Satellite Reporting System – Garmin inReach Messenger – configured to report GPS position every 2 minutes. Internal battery lifetime is rated at 3 to 6 days. Unit weighs 4 oz.

    The same unit could also be mounted on top of the EV to provide independent, real-time GPS measurements of the position (and speed) of the EV during the test in September.

  12. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Once the Ecat has been configurated for a due Voltage, the tension cannot be changed and the load must be fit for it.
    To increase V you can put Ecats in series, and to increase the Amperage you can put them in parallel.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  13. Anonymous

    Dr Rossi,
    Have you an idea about when we’ll see the test with an EV ?

  14. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    We are thinking to September,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  15. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Is the standard SKLep unit a DC input/DC output only, with additional components available for AC input and/or AC Output? Such as AC to DC wall adapters or power supplies and a DC to AC inverter separate from the standard SKLep unit?

  16. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestive insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  17. Steven Nicholes Karels

    eCat NGU Demonstration Using a SkyHynter Model Airplane

    Test Concept:

    Equip a model airplane with an eCat NGU unit(s) to fly for several days continuously, while it reports its position by satellite communication.

    Flight path could either be Return To Base (RTB) or a closed series of navigation waypoints, repeated endlessly. RTB is a flight more where the model airplane circles around the takeoff point at a certain radius and altitude.

    SkyHunter Specs

    Specifications

    Brand Name: SonicModell
    Item Name: Full-Scale Skyhunter
    Wingspan: 1800mm (70.86")
    Length: 1400mm (55.11”) (adjustable)
    Wing Area: 36dm/3.9ft2 (Main wing Area)
    Max Flying Weight: 3.0-3.5kg
    Color: White
    Material: EPO with Carbon Fiber
    CG: 1/3 of the wing from leading-edge

    The Skyhunter can reach a top speed of 94 km/h and can fly for up to 60 minutes on a single battery.

    Satellite Reporting System – Garmin inReach Messenger – configured to report GPS position every 2 minutes. Internal battery lifetime is rated at 3 to 6 days. Unit weighs 4 oz.

    All additional needed components, GPS receiver, Transmitter/receiver, all-in-one flight system, telemetry transmitter/receiver, cameras, are relatively inexpensive and light weight. Add navigation flashing lights for nighttime flying.

    With a takeoff weight limit of 3.5 kg, you should be able to place up to 4 – 8 100W NGU units onboard. It is likely that fewer 100W units will be required.

    Proposed Test Flight

    Launch in an open area away from the city or nearby airports. Keep model airplane within transmitter-receiver control. RTB or do nearby waypoints at a few hundred feet above the ground.

    Select a weather window when low surface winds are expected and no storms.

    Launch model airplane and verify satellite communications is operative. Let it fly for 3 days, continuously recording Satellite position data.

    Thoughts?

  18. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I believe you misunderstood Steve D second question.

    Steve D wrote “Will the ecat operate within a limited range where R > 14.4 ohms?”

    and you responded “if the load exceeds the power of the Ecat system, the system shuts down.”

    If the load resistance increases, then the total power draw will decrease. So, Steve D’s question asks — for a constant output voltage, and the load increases resistance, will the eCat unit continue to provide output at a reduced power level?

    Steve

  19. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    I interpreted the question of Steve D supposing @ 100 W, but if the power demand decreases in proportion, the resistance Ohmage can be increased.
    So, in this case, the answer is Yes.
    The answer is bound to the integrals deriving from the Ohm’s law.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  20. Steve D

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Thank you for your answers. I have resent the missing questions?? They set the scene for the subsequent questions.

    2) Removal of the load will cause ecat shut down?

    3) Will the ecat operate within a limited range where R > 14.4 ohms?

  21. Andrea Rossi

    Steve D:
    I never received the questions missing in your former comment.
    Here are the answers to your new questions:
    2) yes
    3) if the load exceeds the power of the Ecat system, the system shuts down

    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  22. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another application for eCat technology

    Remote wireless surveillance cameras.

    “Generally, most surveillance cameras operate on low voltage DC power, typically ranging from 12V to 24V. The power consumption of a camera is usually specified by the manufacturer and can range from a few watts to around 10 watts.”

    “Estimates vary widely, with some sources suggesting there are over 30 million surveillance cameras in the country” (USA)

    A single 10W NGU unit producing 12 VDC, or two 10W NGU in series producing 24 VDC, could power a surveillance camera and eliminate the need to run wiring to the camera.

    Surveillance cameras typically operate 24/7 and the additional cost would be paid for by electricity savings over time.

    Thoughts?

  23. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  24. Anonymous

    Dr Rossi,
    Do you use microchips in the Ecat NGU ?
    If yes, aren’t you afraid that a lack of microchips could affect the Ecats manufacturing ?

  25. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    1- yes
    2- no
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  26. Steve D

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    A feature of the Mini is auto adjust current x voltage = 10W for the load range where R = V^2/P

    @1V R is 0.1 ohms

    @ 12V R is 14.4 ohms

    1) Attempt to draw more than 10W with R 14.4 ohms?

    4) Where Q3 is true, was this condition applicable to the previous live stream therefore less than 10W was delivered?

    5) Is there a minimum current to maintain activation which lies somewhere between 12V/14.4 ohms = 0.833A and 0A?

    6) Where Q5 is true can you define the minimum current needed to maintain activation where only small loads are in use?

    Thank you for your answers

  27. Andrea Rossi

    Steve D:
    The equations in the premise of your comment are correct.
    Answers:
    1- no
    2- impossible to answer because in your comment there is no Q2
    3- same as in 2
    4- same as in 3
    5- The minimum Voltage in the Ecats is 12, the Amperage depends on the ratio P/V
    6- If V = 12 and P = 10, the consequence is A = 10/12
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  28. Joel

    Is the Ecat NGU shown on Ecatworld assemblable in many units put in parallel and in series to reach higher power ?
    If yes: which is the max power reachable this way ?
    Thank you if you can answer,
    Joel

  29. Andrea Rossi

    Joel:
    1- yes
    2- theoretically there are no limits
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  30. Irina

    Is it for the Ecat NGU still the plasma, as described in the paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    , the necessary precondition to obtain the O.U. ?

  31. Andrea Rossi

    Irina:
    Yes,
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  32. Sam

    Hello DR Rossi

    Scientists freeze positronium atoms with lasers

    https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-68349448.amp

    Regards
    Sam

  33. Andrea Rossi

    Sam,
    Thank you for the link,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  34. Stephen

    Dear Andrea Rossi.

    I thought you or your team might find this recently published paper on six flux composite fermions. The maths and discussion is quite involved and difficult so I’m not sure if it can be useful for you or not. But there seem too
    me to be something’s of interest there.

    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-024-45860-5

    I’m very encouraged to see that serious science is now tackling these topics.

    Best Regards

  35. Andrea Rossi

    Stephen:
    Thank you for the link: yes, it is of interest.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  36. Anonymous

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    how much time is necessary to make the CE certification of an object like the Ecat ?

  37. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Thank you for the suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  38. Aninymous

    Dr Rossi,
    Do you think that the application of a capacitance could help the coupling between the Ecat and the battery of an EV ?

  39. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another eCat application – electric Golf Carts.

    Facts:
    “Today, there are more than 2 million carts in the country. They can be found on golf courses, resort towns, and even on the streets of major cities.

    An electric cart’s range is typically 15 to 25 miles, depending on the type of battery. With a 4 to 6 gallon fuel tank, you might average 100 to 180 miles with a gas cart.

    Gas carts tend to have more power, with their internal combustion engine (ICE) motors averaging 10 (7.5 kW) to 12 (8.9 kW) horsepower. Electric carts typically have 3 (2.2 kW) to 5 (3.7 kW) horsepower motors.

    To answer how long do electric golf carts take to charge, the answer is 7-14 hours for a completely drained battery and between 2-7 hours for a partially drained battery.

    An electric cart’s range is typically 15 to 25 miles, depending on the type of battery. With a 4 to 6 gallon fuel tank, you might average 100 to 180 miles with a gas cart.”

    So, if the NGU can truly accommodate inductive loads, an all-electric golf cart that is not range limited, never needs charging, and has much more power than other electric golf carts, then using NGU technology might be appropriate.

    Thoughts?

  40. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  41. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    There is a simplification to the New York City charging proposal I previously posted.

    The requirement is for a total of about 8 kW-hrs of energy to be provided each day to the Tesla Electric Vehicle (EV). The Tesla is charged using a Tesla Mobile Connector. The Tesla Mobile Connector can accept a smart adapter cable which is selected for the input AC voltage and input AC current draw.

    I suggest Tesla design and use a new smart adapter designed to accept 120VAC at a power of 400W.

    If this can be done, then 4 or 5 eCat 100W units could be employed to drive a commercially available DC-to-AC inverter that would produce 120VAC at 400W. This would provide power to the Smart Adapter.

    Steve

  42. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  43. Mark Underwood

    Dr Rossi,
    From your comments I understood that you are going to perform by this year both the demo of the Ecat NGU to produce electric energy and the demo of an EV powered by the NGU: am I correct ?
    Best
    MarK Underwood

  44. Andrea Rossi

    Mark Underwood:
    Correct,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  45. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I sent the following to Tesla:

    Suggestion for a Modification to Tesla Vehicles to make them more acceptable in New York City

    The Problem:

    Tesla electric vehicles are a great means of transportation. New York City has many pro-environment potential Tesla customers but Tesla sales have not met expectations in large cities such as New York City. The customer base is generally affluent and can afford the cost of a new Tesla vehicle. The problems are:

    1. A limited access to Tesla superchargers.
    2. Apartment dwellers typically do not have dedicated parking locations nor access to apartment-provided charging stations.
    3. Many persons who have automobiles must park their cars on the street in a general proximity to their apartment.
    4. When they leave to go to and come back from work, they generally must use whatever available parking place is near their apartment.
    5. Because the street parking location changes, they cannot simply (and likely illegally) run an extension cord from their apartment to their vehicle for charging purposes.
    6. Range Anxiety become a genuine issue.

    The Facts and Assumptions:

    1. Most NYC automobile commutes are a total of 30 miles or less per working day.
    2. Typical energy consumption is assumed to be 0.23kW-hrs per mile.
    3. Sentry mode is assumed to consume the energy of the equivalent of 2 miles per 24 hours.
    4. Typical commute time is 1 hour each way or less – assume 2 hours of driving per day.

    The Implementation

    1. Assume an energy supply suitcase could be designed that could fit into the frunk of a Tesla vehicle.
    2. Assuming 30 miles of driving each day and the equivalent of 2 miles of driving to support the Sentry daily operation, we need 32 miles * 0.23 kW-hrs/mile or 7.36 kW-hrs of energy supply each day.
    3. Allowing for conversion efficiencies, the likely requirement is 8 kW-hrs of energy supply in a 24-hour period.
    4. Assume a Mobile Connector with a consumption of 120VAC at 12 Amps or 1.44 kW of consumed power.
    5. For anti-theft reasons, assume an additional power inlet connect is installed in the frunk of the Tesla.
    6. Software could be accomplished to allow the Tesla to drive even with the frunk interior power inlet connector still connected with the suitcase.
    7. Also assume a pure sinewave inverter was between the suitcase and the Mobile Connector, with correct grounding so the Mobile Connector will function.
    8. The owner would place the suitcase (and the inverter) in the frunk and make connection to the power inlet connector in the frunk and then secure the frunk cover.
    9. The suitcase would provide power to the inverter which converts that power to usable 120VAC power at an approximately 1.4 kW level causing the Tesla battery system to charge while the Tesla is stationary (either at the street near the apartment or at the work location).

    The Suitcase Options

    1. A suitcase could hold sufficient rechargeable batteries to supply a daily charge to the Tesla. In this approach, the owner would have two (or more) suitcases. One suitcase would be in the frunk, charging the Tesla. A second (or more) suitcase would be at the owner’s apartment being charged. The advantage of this approach is that it uses proven off-the-shelf batteries to provide the power to the inverter that in turn powers the Mobile Connector. The disadvantages are the need to multiple suitcase units, the transport of the suitcase to and from the Tesla, and the need for charging device at the apartment, unless it is built-in to the suitcase.

    2. The alternative method would be to take advantage of the eCat power unit that is becoming commercially available. Each unit provides 100W of DC electrical power (nominal 12 VDC) with a physical size of 7cm x 7cm x 9cm. They may be combined in parallel and/or serially to obtain a desired voltage and current output. To reach 1.4 kW of output power, I would suggest 16 units be combined to output up to 1.6kW of electrical power. The specified duration of each eCat unit is 100,000 hours of operation. The advantage of this approach is only a single suitcase is required to support standalone charging of the Tesla vehicle, no remove and replace of the suitcase is needed, and no owner daily interaction is needed. The disadvantage is the eCat is not currently commercially available but should be in the near future.

    Alternative Uses

    1. With a fully operational suitcase and assuming an apartment electrical black-out, the suitcase power, through an inverter, could provide limited electrical power to apartment appliances, such as a television set or a refrigerator.
    2. If on a camping trip, then the suitcase power could be used to support camping electrical needs.

    Recommendations

    1. Consider adding a power input port within the Tesla vehicle frunk, which would allow charging during times of the Tesla being parked.
    2. Develop a suitcase capability to facilitate Tesla sales in major metropolitan areas such as New York City.

  46. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for the information and for your suggestions,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  47. Sam

    Hello DR Rossi

    A talk about the life and
    work of Paul Dirac.

    https://youtu.be/jPwo1XsKKXg?si=k85bh9Fe8DlDXl6C

    Regards
    Sam

  48. Andrea Rossi

    Sam:
    Thank you for the link,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  49. Prof

    Dr Rossi,
    here are your complete stats I found today on
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Total Readings: 138000 (of which 127028 only for “Ecat the New Fire and Long Range Particle Interactions”) more than 99% of 1.5 million papers on Researchgate
    Recommendations: 10672, more than 99% of 1.5 million publications on Researchgate
    Research Interest Score: 2757, more than 99% of 1.5 million Researchgate publications
    Most Readings by Cathegories: Electrical Engineering, Theoretical Physics, Chemical Engineering, Engineering Physics
    Most Readings by Seniority: Prof, PhD Students, Researchers, Seniors
    And counting…
    Best,
    Prof

  50. Andrea Rossi

    Prof
    Thank you for your update,
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  51. João da Mata

    Dear Mr. TSS

    The biggest mistake made by nuclear theorists was to assume that there is a strong force, responsible for the aggregation of atomic nuclei.
    A definitive and indisputable proof that the strong force does not exist is the nucleus 4Be11.

    The following text is from page 286 of the book NEW NUCLEAR PHYSICS:

    ============Two short analyses on the strong nuclear force=================

    Analysis One: how the experiment denies the hypothesis of the existence of strong nuclear force.
    Analysis Two: how the equilibrium between strong nuclear force and Coulomb’s repulsion is dismissed by the experiment.

    i) Analysis One.
    In 2009, the discovery that 4Be11 has a halo neutron far away 7 fm from the core [1], put in checkmate the hypothesis on the existence of the strong nuclear force because any theory, supported by the principles of the standard nuclear physics (SNP), which can be proposed with the aim to explain the enigma, is unacceptable and unfruitful because:

    a) Suppose a theory is proposed (no matter if based on the principles of the SNP or even if based on new arguments beyond the Standard Model), however by keeping the belief that nucleons are bound via strong nuclear force.

    b) However, the theory is unacceptable because in 97% of decays 4Be11 transmutes to 5B11 and therefore the neutron does not leave the nucleus.

    c) In the 4Be11, the neutron decays into a proton and electron and the proton turns back to the core (the new-born 5B11). If the strong nuclear force was responsible for the cohesion of nuclei, the proton could never go back to the core because in a distance of 7 fm it cannot interact with the core via strong force and the classical Coulomb repulsion between the core and the proton would be so strong that the proton would be expelled from the new-born 5B11.

    d) Therefore, 5B11 could never be formed in 97% of the 4Be11 decay.

    But the discovery of 2009 only corroborated other experimental finding which points out that protons and neutrons cannot be bound via strong nuclear force inside atomic nuclei, as proven in [2], where incontestable arguments invalidate Gamow’s theory and demonstrate that protons and neutrons cannot be bound by the strong nuclear force.
    ====================================================================================================

    According to current nuclear physics the value of the permeability constant is 4pi.10^-7 H/m.

    But on page 287 of the book NEW NUCLEAR PHYSICS it is calculated that, within atomic nuclei, the permeability constant is 92.5x(4pi.10^-7) H/m.

    In other words, inside the atomic nuclei the permeability constant is 92.5 times greater than outside the atomic nuclei.
    Meaning that within atomic nuclei the magnetic intensity is 92.5 times greater than what is considered in current nuclear physics.
    The stability of atomic nuclei is due to magnetism, not strong force.

    Hence you can see how far nuclear theorists are from understanding the stability mechanisms of atomic nuclei.

  52. João da Mata

    Dear Prof.

    I suggest you to read “On the lack of potential in quantum mechanics, pointed out by the Aharonov-Bohm effect”:

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/358226000_On_the_lack_of_potential_in_quantum_mechanics_pointed_out_by_the_Aharonov-Bohm_effect

  53. Prof

    Dr Rossi,
    The paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    reached today 127000 total readings, more than the 99.9 of the 1.5 million readings on Researchgate.
    And counting…
    Prof

  54. Andrea Rossi

    Sam:
    Thank you for the lnks,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  55. Kurt

    Herr Dr. R. Rossi,
    gibt es eine möglichkeit wo jeder Vorbesteller (auch vor Jahren) eine Vorbestellung gemacht hat alle seine Bestellungen
    zu überprüfen ..gegebenenfalls noch korrigieren kann?
    weil es sind inzwischen bei einzelnen schon Jahre vergangen! unsere Menschlichen Speicher sind voll!
    so könnte jeder Kotrollieren ob alles noch korrekt?
    Freue mich auf eine Adresse von Ihnen Danke.
    Freundliche Grüsse
    Kurt
    Dr. R. Rossi, is there a way where everyone who pre-ordered (even years ago) can check all of their orders and correct them if necessary? because years have now passed for some of them! our human memories are full! so everyone could check whether everything is still correct? I look forward to receiving an address from you. Thank you. Kind regards Kurt

  56. Andrea Rossi

    Kurt:
    For obvious reasons the list of the pre-order forms we received is confidential.
    Everybody can ask confirmation of us receiving his pre-order form by sending an email here:
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  57. João da Mata

    Mr. TSS

    The prediction that Coulomb repulsions within atomic nuclei are much lower than calculated by current nuclear physics was predicted in this article published in the end of 2019:
    https://www.vibgyorpublishers.org/content/ijanp/fulltext.php?aid=ijanp-4-013

    This article had been submitted to the European Physical Journal A at the beginning of 2019, but was rejected by the Editor-in-Chief of EJPA, because he considered it impossible that the Coulomb Law within atomic nuclei does not behave in accordance with the Standard Coulomb Law.

    This anomaly of Coulomb’s Law within atomic nuclei requires a NEW NUCLAR THEORY.

    This new nuclear physics is exposed in the book NEW NUCLEAR PHYSICS:
    https://www.amazon.com/New-Nuclear-Physics-Wladimir-Guglinski/dp/B0CVF777PK/ref=sr_1_2?crid=2JFNIEDDQTWKR&dib=eyJ2IjoiMSJ9.WOT1om5gem8tr6wgIfbSgIphuS6eVnESaL-w5NJuYDEl2KFmro5roMFsaAGGDldyQZtf6Gwfh52hWhScvIv4sx7H-lC2swovOxVrh4H62PBjtUBXaaU2wFj_ladJhkmk5ZPg_Y6kcj4d37laJihBYsTy1LEeMYFWP4vZed4UVbdeeovTEeyTwG6pKynIc5zF.-P7h_fUyXJZxP_3eR7P4WWzfr4wEtK0hU04TsLTogWs&dib_tag=se&keywords=guglinski&qid=1708172381&sprefix=%2Caps%2C216&sr=8-2

    Here is the description of the book:

    The author began to analyze current nuclear physics in 1993. The conclusion he reached is that none of the proposed nuclear models could explain some properties of nuclei, measured in experiments. That was why he set out to discover a new model that could explain all the properties of atomic nuclei. On page 137 of his book Quantum Ring Theory, published in 2006, the conclusion he reached is that nuclei with Z>8, Z being pair, and Z=N, are ellipsoidal in shape. According to standard nuclear physics that was impossible, because nuclear theory was developed from the principle of symmetry, and so those nuclei had to have spherical shape. But in 2012 the journal Nature published the article “How atomic nuclei cluster”, describing an experiment that detected that such nuclei really have an ellipsoidal shape, meaning that symmetry is not a fundamental law of Nature. In the beginning of 2019 he submitted to the European Physical Journal A a paper where was shown that Coulomb’s Law is incomplete, and because of this the repulsion between protons inside atomic nuclei is very weaker than predicted in the standard nuclear physics. The paper was rejected after few days. After that he submitted it to the International Journal of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, and the paper was published in the end of 2019. In the beginning of 2023 the Physical Review Letters published a paper describing an experiment made by Kegel et al., whose result showed that repulsions within helium-4 are really very weaker than predicted by the standard nuclear physics.
    The conclusions from these two experiments are:

    The structure of existing nuclei in Nature is different from that conceived by nuclear theorists.
    Nuclear physics was developed from a wrong fundamental principle: the symmetry.

  58. Jõao da Mata

    Mr. TSS

    Nuclear energy for 5 seconds???
    Wow…
    Probably you don’t know that all the foundations of current nuclear physics are in checkmate.

    The experiment made by Kegel at al. has shown that repulsion between protons inside atomic nuclei is very weaker than predicted by the current nuclear theory.
    https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.152502

    The experiment showed that Coulomb repulsion between protons inside helium-4 is far weaker than predicted by nuclear theory.

    So, such experiment implies that Coulomb Law inside atomic nuclei does not follow the Standard Coulomb Law considered by nuclear theorists.

    Therefore, the test of the Oxford hot fusion reactor is very very far away of nuclear energy production.

    They do not have any idea on why Coulomb Law inside atomic nuclei does not work as current nuclear theory predicts.

    In short, nuclear theorists do not have any idea on how to get energy from nuclear fusion, since their nuclear theory is wrong, and they are shooting in the dark, because they even do not know where the target is.

  59. Raffaele Bongo

    Hello Dr. Rossi
    When you were working on the thermal E-Cat, you told me that the reactor core had a temperature of 1 ev or around 11600° K. At this temperature the plasma normally emits in the scepter of violet, ultra violet. This is not the most suitable light for solar panels which are more sensitive in the warm.
    Have you since changed the operating temperature in order to have a light specter more appropriate to the sensitivity of the photovoltaic cells?
    Best regards
    Raffaele

  60. Andrea Rossi

    Raffaele Bongo:
    Sorry, but the answer is complex and, so far, confidential.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  61. W. Schulz

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    if there are still issues with inductive loads so can we assume that there are no problems with resistive/ohmic load?
    Anyways most ohmic loads are the real big power consumers, like heating, electric water heater, light bulbs and cooking.
    Therefore you could just make a (maybe cheaper?) version of the ecat for these applications.
    I think it is important that your invention will come to the market as soon as possible.
    Best regards
    W. Schulz

  62. Andrea Rossi

    W. Schulz:
    The Ecat SKLep NGU will be able to power both inductive and resistive loads,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  63. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another eCat application

    Agricultural (farm) tractors

    “What is the downside of electric tractors?

    The list of disadvantages is very, very long! In broadacre farming, tractors are working for days at end, and electric will never meet the workload demand. Rural areas do not have sufficient infrastructure to charge the things, and farmers cannot afford the down time while waiting for the thing to re-charge.” – internet.

    Large farm tractors have hp ratings of about 80 hp (about 60 kW) up to 500 hp (about 373 kW). While the average load is usually much smaller – peak load can be accommodated by energy stored in onboard batteries.

    eCat technology can provide power on the tractor for long periods and it is independent of rural electrical infrastructure. During non-tractor use, the onboard eCat tractor can provide power to the farmer’s home and his buildings, perhaps to storage batteries so power is available while the tractor is being used in the fields.

    John Deer has published that they expect to market all electric tractors in 2026.

    Thoughts?

  64. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  65. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Questions:

    1. Does the NGU implementation still have issues with inducive loads, such as motors?
    2. If so, does placing a battery between the NGU unit and the inductive load resolve the issue?
    3. If so, would it make sense to place a small rechargeable battery within the NGU unit, to accommodate inductive loads?
    4. Would a capacitor suffice to replace a battery for this implementation?

  66. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    1. we are working on it
    2. depends on the application
    3. same as in 3
    4. yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  67. Jan Srajer

    Mr. Rossi
    1. Is the Ecat SKLed safe against falling from 1m
    2. Will Ecat SKLed still work at 9V?
    3. Is the Ecat SKLed rain resistant?
    4. Is the Ecat SKLed resistant to frequent switching on and off
    Warm regards

  68. Andrea Rossi

    Jan Srajer,
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  69. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another eCat application

    Electric conversion of ferries.

    Ferries are usually smaller boats designed to transport people and vehicles across rivers or smaller bodies of water. Many times, they are in rural areas where the electric infrastructure is inadequate for battery-only ferry operation. This would normally require expensive changes to the electric infrastructure to add additional power capacity at the locations where the ferry will dock.

    Ferry motors would likely run around 1,000 hp for a small ship, about 746 kW of peak electrical power.

    Adding eCat technology will have two primary benefits:

    1. Decrease the size of the onboard battery system to only handle short-term power needs with the eCat system providing the average energy consumption generation of electrical power.
    2. The avoidance of changing the electrical infrastructure to accommodate the ferry docking facilities. I.e., no charging facilities would need to be added at each docking location if the onboard eCat equipment can provide the total round trip energy needs.

    Thoughts?

  70. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  71. Jan Šrajer

    Mr.Rossi
    Your theoretical work is inspiring in the sense of ZPE. For example, an ordinary capacitor could also be seen as a precursor to a ZPE. Its amount of accumulated energy is dependent on the size of the plates and the distance between them. If the distance between them were infinitely small, then the energy of the capacitor would be infinitely large. Of course, this is not yet possible because the capacitor will destroy itself, but the idea of ​​keeping the charge of a capacitor in a very small space between its poles is similar to the idea of ​​zero point energy ZPE and your work on using very small distances between electrons.

    All the best. J.Š

  72. Claude

    Dr Rossi,
    Kudos for your answer to TSS

  73. Andrea Rossi

    Claude:
    Thank you for your support,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  74. Anonymous

    Dr Rossi,
    In the paragraph 2.4 “Zitterbewegung Lagrangian” of the paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    is written that the high density of the electrons clusters can be reached if the Stationary Action condition is equal to zero.
    Is this threshold of electrons density still a necessary pre-condition to make the Ecat reach its function ?

  75. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    It depends on the model: if its components worth a certification have been already certified for a previous model, the certification needs several weeks; if it is a completely new thing, the time necessary depends on the complexity, we are in the order of months,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  76. WaltC

    Dr. Rossi,
    1) Are you considering redundancy within, for instance, your 3kW assembly so that the lifespan of the assembly can be longer than that of the weakest subcomponent?

    For example, solar PV modules do this quite simply by using bypass and blocking diodes within the module, so that the failure of one or more cells simply degrades the output rather than stopping it altogether.

    Best Wishes,
    WaltC

  77. Andrea Rossi

    WaltC:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  78. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    1- Is it generally true that the maximum number of 10W NGU units you can tie in series is bounded by 20 units — to comply with the maximum voltage specification?

    2- Conversely, is it also true that an unbounded number of 10W NGU units may be connected in parallel – assuming adequately sized buss bars were used?

  79. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    1- no
    2- yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  80. Steve D

    Dear Andrea Rossi 

    In your response to my question of 2024-02-07 you agreed that there been additional connections installed for each NGU ecat to enable direct interface for better control of performance. 

    1) Can we now see the ecat NGU as having relinquished its independent thinking in deference to a master control device, particularly so where banks of ecats are required?

    2) Where Q1 is true, does this means that those who ordered multiple ecats might require a controller as well?

    3) Where an ecat NGU operates alone such as in the live stream or for the home experimenter,

    a) has this presented a compromise challenge? 

    b) is this this source if your concern re your comment 2024-01-20 “Yes, the non stop streaming poses problems that are different from a normal use, this is why we are worried and still working on it.”

    Thank You

  81. Andrea Rossi

    Steve D:
    1- yes
    2- no, we privide the necessary A.I.
    3- b)
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  82. Gavino Mamia

    Dott. Rossi
    Alcuni Troll stanno commentando che il simbolo CE nel suo prototipo da 3 KW non è Certificazione Europea ma bensì Cina Export.
    Come faranno poi a capirlo da una immagine non frontale non si sa.
    Ormai non sanno più cosa dire, stanno aggrappandosi agli specchi, sono alla frutta.

  83. Andrea Rossi

    Gavino Mamia:
    You are right.
    The trolls have no real arguments and to disparage us are scretching the bottom of the barrel.
    The CE mark on the Ecat is regular.
    Anyway, I repeat that the trolls are not worth the time to take them in consideration. Our policy is: just ignore them at all.
    Contano come il due di picche quando la briscola è a fiori.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  84. Steven Nicholes Karels

    TSS,

    While the test was stable for 5 seconds, what we need is a demonstration of continuous stability. We also need an energy gain somewhere between 10 and 100 from the input energy to the output energy. This is due to the Carnot cycle for converting heat energy into electricity and the supporting power needed to initiate and control the process. This goal is still far from the current reach.

    We also need to use a reaction that is aneutronic (does not produce neutrons). An aneutronic reaction would not produce neutrons that would interact with the enclosure to form radioactive materials in the reactor’s walls.

    It seems that nuclear fusion will always be 40 years away. Perhaps the eCat technology can provide GREEN electrical energy, if it can be mass produced and is accepted? Fusion looks great, if I can be made to be practical. It is not an easy task. Sometimes, difficult tasks will never become practical systems.

  85. Jaroslaw Bem

    Mr TTS

    You wrote “nuclear fusion does not use radioactive materials and is not dangerous”
    This is the fake, because to proceed nuclear fusion on temperature ~ 150 000 000 K is necessary use 2 isotopes of Hydrogen.
    1. Deuterium
    2. Tritium
    Deuterium is abundant in environment in see water and is no radioactive, but Tritium is absent in nature and must be produced in conventional nuclear reactors.
    Tritium is radioactive and very expensive isotope of Hydrogen ~ 30 000 $/g.

    Best regards
    Jaroslaw Bem

  86. TSS

    Mr Rossi,
    Two days ago has been reached a successful test of the Oxford hot fusion reactor that succeeded to produce nuclear energy for 5 seconds; nuclear fusion does not use radioactive materials and is not dangerous.
    I think your work is useless: enjoy your retirement.
    Good bye,
    The Sceptic Scientist

  87. Andrea Rossi

    TSS,
    After your suggestion for me to retire, I decided to follow your wisdom, therefore I felt myself insensible shouldn’t I thank you dedicating at least one hour, included the composition of this comment ( you know, retired guys have so much free time ) to analyze carefully the press release you fallen in love with so much.
    But, sadly, after few minutes I got baffled.
    The statement you refer to, made by the scientists of the nuclear fusion performed in Oxford, contains a malicious scientific information of relevant importance, because it makes us think that all that system is finalized to hide the truth only to get billions of euros and dollars in funds to contunue an enterprise that in fifty years has eaten thousands of billions from the Taxpayer repeating for half century every now and agin the mantra ” within 10 years we will reach the real thing”.
    Here is the evidence of what I wrote above:
    they published in their press release that they have been able to produce 68 MegaJoules (MJ) of ENERGY in 5 seconds. They proclaim that this is a spectacular performance ! A record ! But let us analyze these numbers carefully: 68 MJ in 6 seconds mean 11.33 MJ/s
    1 MJ = 239 Kcal, therefore 11.33 MJ = 239 x 11.33 = 2708 Kcal/s = 3,147 Wh/s = 3 kWh/s
    If we multiply 3 kWh x 6″, we obtain the “impressive” amount of 18 kWh/6″
    Here is the devil’s smartness: they forgot to say that to obtain 18 kW the system consumed about 100 kWh of energy, therefore, in reality, they consumed 100 kWh of input energy to obtain 18 kWh of output energy, with an efficiency of 18%, about half the efficiency of a standard diesel fueled genset, priced about 3000 $, whose standard efficiency is around the 36% .
    But not only the COP is ridiculous in that context, but the power is not existent, because they had to shut down all the system immediately ( = after 6 seconds, just the time to say ” how are you mama ?” ) because the magnetic field necessary to confine the temperature of 150 millions °C, broke up at once, and when the magnetic confinement field breaks up if you do not shut down immediately all the system you obtain something not completely incostintent with a fusion bomb, and eventually you turn into radioactive everything around, as heavy as it might be.
    The devil needs funds from the taxpayers and lies to get them.
    I am sorry, TTS: after thinking about that, I changed idea and decided not to retire: if your love for these guys is sincere, and not occasional, you should suggest them to retire, envisioning them going, just for example, to the shore of a mountain lake and playing who throws farther some balls in the water; besides, having some free time,they could read the paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    maybe encouraged by what the DOD ( Department of Defense) wrote about it here:
    https://lenr.wiki/images/9/9d/Concepts_Behind_E-Cat_SK_%E2%80%93_HDIAC.pdf
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  88. Walter

    @TSS
    Even if it were forever instead of 5 seconds, it will be always more expensive. You need an electric power grid to bring it to the consumers and because of it is centralised the government will let pay you taxes, the company want much profit.
    And btw: The fusion constant is still about 30 years, since at least 60 years.
    I trust in Leonardo. They never ask for money, but the researchers in Britain, at Iter.. of hot fusion did it in billions.

  89. Andrea Rossi

    TSS:
    Thank you for your kind suggestion for my retirement.
    About your comment:
    1- the test you cite is substantially the repetition of the same test made two years ago and repeated the same failure: after 5 seconds has been stopped because of the failure of the control of the magnetic fields: the core of the problem is to maintain the magnetic fields stable to separate the plasma at 150 millions °C from the internal walls of the reactor
    2- whereas it is true that hydrogen is not radioactive, it is fraudolent to hide the fact that all the materials that enter in contact with the plasma from the hot fusion becomes radioactive: this means that thousands of tonns of the facitity would become radioactive in case o an enduring failure of the stability of the magnetic fields.
    3- about the work of our Team: we do not think it is useless, although it does not fuse thousands of billions of the taxpayer and is completely financed by ourselves.
    Good Bye,
    A.R.

  90. Andrea Rossi

    “Karels, Steven”
    The datasheet will be published only when we will be ready to deliver, after the tests on the prototypes will be completed. We are still in a phase during which the data are fluid.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    P.S.
    Although this blog allows nicknames and creative URLs, please do not again choose a nickname that creates confusion with real names of our Readers: whereas nicknames are accepted to protect the privacy of persons that want not to expose themselves, to use real names and family names of others to put on them the exposition is unfair. Your next similar comment will be spammed.

  91. Karels, Steven

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    On your prototype 3kW NGU unit, what output voltage? AC or DC? If AC, Hertz?

  92. Walter

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    additional to your answer to J. Bem:
    1- So the ecat NGU are already ready for production?
    2- Will you demonstrate the working ecats to big clients before you bring the demonstration of EVs with ecats before the public?
    3- If yes, could you tell us the date of the demonstration to big clients?
    Best regards
    Walter

  93. Andrea Rossi

    Walter:
    1- No
    2- Yes
    3- Possibly
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  94. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    On the 3kW NGU unit, what output voltage (and subsequent current) options do you envision being available? E.g., 12 VDC at 250 Amps does not seem practical.

  95. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Depends on the situations,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  96. Jaroslaw Bem

    Dear Andrea,

    The prototype 3 kW E-Cat SKLep NGU on its case contain CE sign.
    Is this mean, the 3 kW E-Cat SKLep NGU is already CE certified?

    Best regards
    Jaroslaw Bem

  97. Andrea Rossi

    Jaroslaw Bem:
    Yes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  98. Prof

    Dr Rossi
    Here are the statistics of your publications I found today on
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Total Readings: 137000, of which 126160 only for “Ecat SK and Long Range Particle Interactions”, the most read paper of over 1.5 millions of papers on
    Researchgate
    Research Interest Score: 2745, more than 99% of 1.5 millions papers on Researchgate
    Recommendations: 10612, more that 99% of 1.5 million publications on Researchgate
    Citations+Mentions: 91
    Most Readings by geographic areas: America, Europe
    Most Readings by cathegories: Energy Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Theoretical Physics, Energy Generation
    Most Readings by seniority: PhD Students, Professors, Seniors
    And counting…
    Best,
    Prof

  99. Andrea Rossi

    Prof:
    Thank you for the update,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  100. Ruth

    in the paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    which is the part that you consider most important to understand the principle of the Ecat NGU ?

  101. Andrea Rossi

    Ruth:
    The paragraph 5 is definitely the one we reached experimental confirmations of,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  102. Gavino Mamia

    Caro Dott. Rossi,
    da quello che ho capito l’Ecat ha una durata di 100.000 ore, cioè ha un contatore interno e dopo tale periodo smetterà di funzionare. Che questo conteggio inizia non appena l’Ecat sente un carico e smette di conteggiare non appena questo carico non c’è più.
    Ho degli amici che possiedono un Camper e hanno sul tetto dei pannelli solari, questi hanno lo scopo di tenere accesi H24 il frigorifero e piccolissimi elettrodomestici.
    La sera invece usano un generatore a benzina per far funzionare elettrodomestici più potenti.
    Ora mi chiedo: usando ad esempio un Ecat da 2 Kw, il contatore delle ore parte anche se è collegato un elettrodomestico che assorbe 100W?
    Oppure è così intelligente da attivare il contatore nei pochi moduli interessati alla produzione di questa piccola energia?
    E’ anche così intelligente da non usare sempre gli stessi moduli ma quelli con più ore a disposizione?
    Spero di essere stato comprensibile
    Buon lavoro a lei e a tutto il suo Team
    P.S. L’ansia dell’attesa mi uccide e se sto invecchiando più in fretta è colpa sua :-)))
    TRANSLATE
    Dear Doctor Rossi,
    From what I understand the ECAT has a lifespan of 100,000 hours, i.e. it has an internal counter and after this period it will stop working. That this counting starts as soon as the Ecat detects a load and stops counting as soon as this load is no longer present.
    I have friends who own an RV and have solar panels on the roof, these are intended to keep the refrigerator and very small appliances turned on 24 hours a day.
    In the evening, however, they use a petrol generator to power the more powerful appliances.
    Now I wonder: using a 2 kW Ecat for example, does the hour meter start even if an appliance that absorbs 100W is connected?
    Or is it so intelligent as to activate the counter in the few modules interested in producing this small energy?
    Furthermore, is it so smart that it doesn’t always use the same modules but rather the ones with more hours available?
    I hope I was understandable
    Good job to you and your entire team
    PS The anxiety of waiting kills me and if I get old it’s his fault :-)))

  103. Andrea Rossi

    Gavino Mamia:
    Your point has been put clearly.
    The Ecat is not that intelligent so far, but after your suggestion we will try to educate it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  104. Andrea Rossi

    Hans Werner,
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  105. Steve D

    Dear Andrea Rossi

    You speak of the need for EV customised attachments in Frank’s interview, however it is clear that the need to modify the ecat to the NGU version was also a necessary part of the solution. 

    The ecat provides two cables for the load, possibly shared for (re)activation. It can be controlled by external load presence or removal. Has there been additional connections installed for each NGU ecat to enable direct interface for better control of performance? 

    Thank you

  106. Andrea Rossi

    Steve D:
    Yes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  107. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Kevin Elliott,

    Providing power via the external charging is relatively straightforward. The complex problems come from trying to charge the EV battery while the EV is in motion. The design of EVs does not permit charging via the external charging port while the EV is in motion.

    I have previously proposed ideas on JONP for a low power charging system using eCat technology while the EV is parked. The problems here is security. Some person could steal the charging unit, if it is external to the EV, or unplug the charging connector from the EV. If the charging unit was inside the EV, then the charging cable must leave the EV to connect to the external charge port.

    Parked battery charging is much more straightforward and requires less power. For example, if the EV has a 60 kW-hr battery capacity, and it is parked for 20 hours per day, then one need only provide about 3 kW of electrical power to maintain a full charge. Some additional power would likely be required for secondary requirements such as a security system and/or cabin heating or cooling.

    If, on the other hand, you were looking for continuous driving while charging, the required power might be around the 50 kW area. Plus overcoming the problem of correctly charging the battery while the EV is being driven. There is no standard yet on how battery system charging, while the EV is in motion, is to be accomplished. Most EVs do not have a sufficiently large AC-to-DC converted within the EV to accommodate high speed battery charging. So, it would require direct DC charging of the battery. The design varies between manufacturers and may even differs within models from the same manufacturer.

  108. Hans-Werner

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    if the BMS of EVs is too complex, so just make a first step: Connect the ecats to a mobile, wheeled 100 KW unit to recharge the batteries.
    The next steps the car manufacturers can do on their own.
    Also the idea of Ava Myers is simple and easy to perform.
    You have not to do all research on your own, what the world needs is just cheap, decentralised, independent energy.
    To fit it into cars, planes or to fit it to heating devices, use it for desalination: let others do that work. No one lives forever and can manage all by himself.
    Best regards and good luck!
    Hans-Werner

  109. Ava Myers

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    thanks for the picture of the 3KW E-cat NGU. It is really small!
    Now, please make a short video while you cook a litre of water in an electric kettle. It would be not much effort to do so.
    This would convince all of the last doubters and sceptics.
    Best regards
    Ava Myers

  110. Andrea Rossi

    Ava Myers:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  111. Kevin Elliott

    Dr. Rossi,

    I just had the opportunity to listen to your latest interview, which sounded very positive. The concept of moving towards the solar market due to demand and ease of integration makes sense. Obviously getting the product to any market the quickest seems in everyone’s best interest.
    I was puzzled though by your comments regarding the challenges of integrating to the different EV battery control systems. When I think of all the effort going into the standardization of the EV charging stations, I am curious why it is necessary to fully integrate, at least initially, in a particular vehicle power control system. Why not think of the Ecat as a portable charging station that takes advantage of an industry standard interface. According to Google, even the Toyota prime’s J1772 port can be adapted to the North American Charging Standard port. Just wondering. Once again, congratulations on the great progress you seem to be making.

    Kevin

  112. Andrea Rossi

    Kevin Elliott:
    Thank you foryour attention. As we experienced, the issues connected with interfacing the Ecat with the BMS of EVs are more complex.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  113. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    My “suggestion” on the Lunar system was not meant to suggest that eCat be used on the moon but to show how it is potentially much more practical than a nuclear-powered electrical power production unit.

    A nuclear-powered electrical production unit would use the Carnot cycle, heating a fluid to boiling, going through a turbine and generating electrical power. Much inefficiency and a very complex design. Especially if it must operate for 19 years unattended.

    An eCat design is so much simpler and potentially more reliable. If eCat can be brought into production and reliably work, it will be a game-changer.

  114. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    1. The configuration is more complex
    2. Same as in 1
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  115. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    For an NGU assembly constructed of multiple NGU 10W units, is the following true:

    1. When multiple 10W NGU units are connected in series, should one 10W unit fail, the current will still pass though the affected unit? The voltage will be the sum of the non-affected units – assuming the affected unit did not become an open circuit?
    2. When multiple 10W NGU units are connected in parallel, should one 10W unit fail, the summed current of the unaffected units will be the same – assuming the defective unit is not a dead short?

  116. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  117. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Thank you for sending me the photo of the 3 kW E-Cat NGU which is now posted on E-Cat World here:

    https://e-catworld.com/2024/02/06/photo-of-the-3-kw-e-cat-prototype/

    Can you provide the dimensions that we see in the photo?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  118. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    The shape is that, while the dimensions are not yet final, so we prefer to wait for a more definite stage.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  119. Frank

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    maybe we talked past each other.
    1- In the interview you say at about 10 min 30 sec: “with this clients the goal of one million will be automatically reached”. So not now, but after these clients see the working ecat ngu at your office. And this will be within this year.
    2- To the question of Walter, D.C. heating: The advantage will be that there is no inverter needed. So no electric cable and no additionally source of error (because no inverter). I think it would be a very good solution for cheap heating.
    Best regards
    Frank

  120. Andrea Rossi

    Frank:
    1- I hope that will be the situation, but it is not yet done
    2- thank you for the suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  121. Gerard McEk

    Dear Andrea,

    There has been some speculation on ECW about whether or not higher power versions of the Ecat SKLep ngu are assemblies of the smallest 10 W version.
    The question is: Is the 3 kW version a single reactor or is it/will it be a multiple reactor assembly?
    Thanks if you can answer.
    Kind regards, Gerard

  122. Andrea Rossi

    Gerard McEk:
    We can choose either solution and did not yet decide which way to go,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  123. Roberto

    Dr Rossi,
    Your interview with Frank Acland on EW is moving for its sincerity.
    All the best,
    Roberto

  124. Andrea Rossi

    Roberto:
    Thank you for your support,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  125. Frank

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    I was very interested in your answer to Walter from 21.1.24 about D.C.-electric heating devices.
    In your interview of yesterday you do not talk about it. But, 1) will it be available at the start of the ecat-production and 2) will Leonardo offer it to customers?
    Because you have already more than one million orders if the demonstration with the big customers is ok:
    3) Can we reckon that the start of the ecat-production will be within this year?
    Best regards and Godspeed!
    Frank

  126. Andrea Rossi

    Frank:
    1. Electric heaters can be powered by the Ecat
    2. I did not say that we already reached pre-orders for 1 million units
    3. It is premature to say: I did not say that we already reached this target.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  127. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    eCat Alternative for Moon Power System

    The US Government (NASA) is contracting for a nuclear power lunar power station capable of providing 40 kW of electrical power for 10 years, completely unmanned.
    This suggests an eCat NGU application.

    Consider a hermetically sealed cubic enclosure. This container would have hermetically sealed electrical connectors for power and monitoring/control.

    Assume a 10 x 10 x 10 number of 100W NGU units and a controller unit (triple redundancy) to monitor each NGU unit’s health and status. Also, there would be a heating system within the enclosure to maintain the internal temperature of the enclosure. The enclosure would be filled with some inert gas such as Krypton or Xeon.

    The controller would serve the following functions:
    1. Turn on/off external power from the enclosure based on external signals.
    2. Control the heating system to maintain the desired internal temperature.
    3. Activate individual NGU units so that sufficient power was available at the external connectors.
    4. Optionally, command and control data could be received or transmitted to an external unit for remote control and monitoring.

    A 10 x 10 x 10 assembly of NGU 100W units was selected to provide 100% redundancy of the NGU power units. Such a matrix would be approximately 70 cm x 70 cm x 90 cm. Therefore, the dimensions of the enclosure would be approximately 1m x 1m x 1m.

    With 1,000 100W NGU units, but with a 50% reserve for dual redundancy, this would provide 50 kW of electrical power availability. With 40 kW of power being outputted, that leaves 10 kW for internal use (controller and environmental control).

    Since there is no air on the moon, we are looking at only radiative heat transfer. Assuming a sun-shade over the enclosure and an internal temperature of 300K with the space background temperature of 4K, we would expect a heat loss of about 400 W per side. Given 5 sides (one side is on the lunar surface), the heating requirements are about 2 – 3 kW.

    This leaves a spare nominal capacity of 7 kW.

    Thoughts?

  128. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels,
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  129. Dr. Rossi,

    Thank you for your detailed answers to Frank’s questions during the interview. And congratulations on the advancements in testing and certifying the NGU that make it safer and more robust than the SKLep.

    I understand that you are not yet ready for 3rd party testing or demonstrations of the NGU. Howver, might you be open to limited 3rd party testing of the older SKLep version by members of the E-Cat World forum, as long as they would be under your NDA and any releases of information subject to your approval?

    I believe that would encourage your followers without releasing any confidential information about either the SKL or NGU. If so, I would like to count myself among the many potential applicants willing to do such testing and reporting, all subject to your approval.

    Warm regards,
    Greg

  130. Andrea Rossi

    Gregory Daigle:
    I already explained in the interview to Frank Acland the tests we are preparing so far; eventually, after the start of the products delivery, our Clients will make all the tests they will deem opportune.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  131. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    In your recent interview you mention five different eCat NGU prototypes with output powers of 10W electric to 3,000W electric.

    1. I would guess the output powers are 10W, 50W, 100W, 1,000W, and 3,000W of electrical power. How many did I correctly guess?
    2. Am I correct is assuming that upon receiving a specific eCat NGU production unit, all that is required to begin the NGU output is to apply a resistive load with the correct impedance value?
    3. Am I also correct that if a working eCat NGU production unit suddenly detects an over-current condition, for example, a sudden decrease in resistive impedance, the NGU unit will shutdown and stay shutdown until the load is removed and then a load within impedance requirements is applied to the NGU output?
    4. Is it correct that, as an option specified at ordering time, the NGU can be turned off by an external signal, such as a contact closure?

  132. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    1- Premature; what we have now are prototypes
    2- correct
    3- correct
    4- correct
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  133. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Thank you for the time you took to do the interview yesterday, your readers might be interested so here is the link:

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q7rHCnzgGYc

    Best wishes,

    Frank Acland

  134. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Thank you for the link,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  135. Nils Fryklund

    Dear Andrea!
    So sad for the cancelled car-demo 20th october 2023, but can´t you show us fans, waiting since 14 years, some pictures of, for example, packed E-cats as you must have tested before the car-demo. Pictures, like the pictures from the container, that you showed us some years ago.
    Best regards
    Nils Fryklund

  136. Andrea Rossi

    Nils Fryklund:
    Thank you for your support.
    In my last interview on EW ( see the link in the last comment of Frank Acland ) I explained why I prefer not to publish data related to prototypes, until the products are not delivered,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  137. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    1. Is there an issue with the SKLep SSM relative to long-term, continuous operation at the rated power output?
    2. Will the NGU version have any issues with long-term, continuous operation at the rated output power?
    3. Are you still working toward a 1 kW electrical output option?
    4. Any progress on direct jet engine?

  138. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    1- no
    2- no
    3- yes
    4- no
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  139. Steve D

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Some question clarifications

    5) Upon ecat delivery the user follows a required activation procedure of which a valid load connection is only one of several steps thus (re)starting ageing?

    Ageing indicates an activated ecat from your information. If a user were to duplicate the live stream for example, ecat activation procedure or instructions might hypotheticaly read:

    Step 1 Connect a 12V DC power source to the ecat output cables observing polarity. This will activate the ecat and charge its capacitor.

    Step 2 Remove the power and connect the load within 30 minutes due to capacitor discharge. This will initiate ZPE powering of the load. 

    6) Does “normal use” describe ecat applications where a local electrical presence is the key “difference” such as for an electric vehicle or solar installation compared to the isolated ecat live stream?

    This draws upon your reply of 2024-01-20 to Paul:

    “Yes, the non stop streaming poses problems that are different from a normal use, this is why we are worried and still working on it.”

    The live stream has no local battery/ energy in the configuration. EV and solar do have local battery/ energy in the configuration. Question 6 asks if a local battery/ energy presence is this “difference” that you refer to. 

    Thank you for your answers.

  140. Andrea Rossi

    Steve D. :
    Thank you for your clarifications.
    Answers:
    5- Correct, yes
    6- No
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  141. Prof

    Dr Rossi,
    The paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    reached today 126,000 total readings. more than 99% of 1,500,000 papers published on Researchgate,
    and counting…
    Best,
    Prof

  142. Andrea Rossi

    Prof:
    Thank you for your update,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  143. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another eCat application

    My wife wanted a closet light installed in the bedroom closet that would illuminate the closet when the door was opened. I went to the local hardware store and found an overhead ceiling light that had a battery and with a built-in motion detector. I came to find that the battery was recharged by removing the light unit (twist unlock) and connecting it to the USB port of a computer. A real pain…

    Why not an eCat SKLep NGU 10W module that would provide all needed power for the ceiling light and motion detector without requiring disassembly or running electrical power to the ceiling light? You could likely sell millions of units.

    Maybe the way to the 10,000,000 10W sales requirement is a common, simple application.

    Thoughts?

  144. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestions,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  145. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another eCat technology application

    Consider using eCat SKLep NGU technology in deep mines (underground passages). Each NGU unit would provide continuous light for illumination purposes without the need to run electrical power. After a cave-in or an explosion, light would continue in the unaffected but blocked locations. Consider also that each such unit could have a secondary purpose to serve as an oxygen concentrator. It would draw air and concentrate the oxygen which could flow to one or more masks to extend the time of breathable air for trapped minors. Oxygen concentrators remove nitrogen from the ambient air while passing through oxygen. Since there is approximately 5 times as much nitrogen than oxygen in air, this could significantly increase the survival time of trapped miners waiting to be rescued.

    Thoughts?

  146. Steve D

    Dear Andrea Rossi, 

    I have a list of questions if you don’t mind to clarify an apparent link between the activated ecat and the ageing ecat and also the implications of your reply of 2024-01-20 …the non stop streaming poses problems that are “different” from a “normal use”.. I finish drawing a conclusion.

    1) With the 100K Hrs life expectancy and shelf life in mind, while in storage does the idle / shut down ecat age?

    2) Prior to order dispatch is the ecat firstly activated whereby it is already ageing upon end user receipt?

    3) Upon ecat delivery the user needs to do no more than to connect a valid load to activate the ecat thus (re)starting ageing?

    4) Where 3 is true (or go to 5)

    4a) ZPE alone enables spontaneous activation of an idle /shut down ecat when a load becomes connected and ageing does not occur unless under load?

    4b) The ecat is always ZPE active to enable detection of a load followed by the powering of it. Active internal electronics do not cause ageing, this occurs only under load?

    5) Upon ecat delivery the user follows a required activation procedure of which a valid load connection is only one of several steps thus (re)starting ageing?

    6) Does “normal use” describe ecat applications where a local electrical presence is the key “difference” such as for an electric vehicle or solar installation compared to the isolated ecat live stream?

    7) Some time ago if I recall correctly you said to the effect that the ecat supplements or works in conjunction with, but not replace other energy sources. Is it also correct to say that other energy sources supplement the ecat?

    8) Is there a temporary requirement for external electrical energy to firstly activate a shut down ecat because only an activated ecat can detect a valid load presence and (begin to) harvest ZPE which then solely provides the energy to maintain ecat SSM activation and drive the load while it is connected?

    9) With no access to local battery / energy, does this mean the ecat live stream is not able to be easily reactivated from shut down and would require intervention?

    10) In the previous live stream the output power was below the 10W rating of this isolated ecat. Does the low power reduce the possibility of a shut down?

    11) Fluctuations of ZPE field density can cause an ecat shutdown?

    12) Variations of load particularly outside operational range can cause an ecat shut down?

    13) Is activation electricity applied to the ecat 

    a) via dedicated input cables?

    b) via the load cables then after which the load can be connected (within a time period set by a charged capacitor)?

    Conclusion. 

    Local electrical activation energy starts the ecat which enables harnessing of ZPE to power the ecat and load.

  147. Andrea Rossi

    Steve D:
    1- no
    2- please rephrase the question clearly
    3- depends on the kind of application
    4- ?
    5- please rephrase
    6- rephrase
    7- other sources can be combined with the Ecat
    8- yes
    9- no
    10- no
    11- depends on the fluctuations entity
    12- depends on the load variations entity
    13- depends on the kind of applications
    14- yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  148. Wilfried

    Dear Andrea,

    Does your current work give you any ideas on how to shrink the E-Cat by a further order of magnitude while maintaining the same output, or how to increase the power density? Has there been any progress?

    Best Regards
    Wilfried

  149. Andrea Rossi

    Wilfried:
    Yes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  150. JJ

    Dear Andrea Rossi

    Since there were safety problems in the past, new safety certificates are now probably also required for the E-Cat?

    Kind regards

  151. Andrea Rossi

    JJ:
    Yes, we are working also on this issue.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  152. Anonymous

    Some actual science about electron:

    Rice University scientists have discovered a first-of-its-kind material, a 3D crystalline metal in which quantum correlations and the geometry of the crystal structure combine to frustrate the movement of electrons and lock them in place.

    https://www.eurekalert.org/news-releases/1032741

  153. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Yes, this is a crucial point.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  154. Anonymous

    Has the Ecat a theoretical base, also for its last version NGU ?

  155. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  156. Andrea Rossi

    ELVIRA Jean Claude:
    Yes, I suppose that the Ecat system can be coupled with yours.
    We will contact you when ready to deliver to discuss the particulars.
    Thank you for your kind attention,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  157. Bonjour Dr ROSSI

    Je pense que vous vous souvenez de moi…aussi je me permets de vous demander conseil …J’ai une maison individuelle à la campagne de 140m2…j’ai la géothermie par le sol avec une pompe à chaleur…j’ai des panneaux photovoltaiques sur mon toit…j’ai installé un cumulus d’eau chaude thermodynamique…je consomme par an 9304 kwh…j’en produis 3300/an …
    Ma question : combien de modules ECAT me faudra-t-il pour être autonome? je ne suis pas expert dans le domaine de l’électricité (ancien sidérurgiste à la retraite)…merci de me donner une réponse même approximative…j’espère ne pas vous avoir trop dérangé dans vos travaux si importants pour l’humanité entière…
    Jean-Claude ELVIRA (qui suit votre blog tous les jours et depuis très lontemps)

  158. Frank

    2) Fotovoltaiko and ecat

    Thank you for the answers.

  159. Andrea Rossi

    Frank:
    Understood; the answer is within this year,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  160. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Antartica consumes about 100 barrels of fuel oil per day – about 42 US gallons in a barrel. This results in an annual CO2 emission of 28,000 metric Tonnes per year.

    Since most of this consumption is for energy or heating (the remainder being used to fuel land vehicles), eCat technology should be a very cost competitive application. The fuel barrels are transported by air or by cargo ship. This is an expensive activity.

    Thoughts?

  161. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for this information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  162. Frank

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    could you please give us a time plan for the coming demos of the ecat ngu?
    1) LED-lamp
    2) PV
    3) electric car (within this year?)
    Best regards
    Frank

  163. Andrea Rossi

    Frank:
    1- within March
    2- What do you mean PV ?
    3- yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  164. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Concept for eCat SKLep NGU technology used with EG4 6000XP Inverters.

    The EG4 6000XP Off-Grid inverter is an all-in-one inverter designed to accept Photovoltaic (PV) power from strings of solar panels, accept grid power, and/or generator power.

    Most residential homes in the USA require split phase 120VAC/240VAC power. To support the 120/240 split phase configuration, two 6000XP units are required, with communication between them.

    Each 6000XP unit can accept PV power inputs of up to 500VDC and 8.5 AMPS for each PV input. Start-up voltage is 100VDC.

    What is proposed are four eCat SKLep NGU units. Each NGU unit will contain 19 100W NGU devices. Each device nominally produces 12VDC at 8.33 Amps for 100W of power. Therefore, each NGU unit will produce 19 x 12VDC or 228VDC at 8.33Amps or 1.9 kW of power.

    Each NGU unit will likely be wall mounted and output the power via standard PV cables. An emergency shutdown capability will be required by Code. This could be internally down within the NGU units or via an external device.

    Each 6000XP unit will receive 3.8kW of electrical power and 7.6 kW for the two 6000XP units that make up one 120/240 split phase inverter system.
    Along with each 6000XP, there will also be a 48VDC Battery System.

    The Battery System will handle peak load situations such as motors and air-conditioners.

    Multiple parallel 6000XP units can be configured up to 16 6000XP units.

    The NGU units will provide constant power 24/7 as opposed to PV solar panels that only provide power during daylight, and only maximum power a few hours per day and are subject to shadowing, clouds, rain and snot effects.

    Thoughts?

  165. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your insight an your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  166. Andrea Rossi

    Michael 5:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  167. Michael S

    Hello Andrea,
    If developing the electricity producing Ecat Lep Ng appears more complex and will demand maybe à few more years of development, why not allready put on the market a simple heat generating device ? Along the same thoughts as with ecat lep a small module of 2-3kw which could be added to obtain the desired power.Ot could be produced in huge numbers and should therefore be very cheap. This should be possible quickly, from what I remember from your past comments the heat producing technology beeing more mature and would allready adress the huge market of heating.
    The climate clock is ticking…

  168. Jan Srajer

    Is the life time of the Ecat SKLed 100 000 hours independently from the luminous flow ?
    Warm Regards,
    Jan Srajer

  169. Andrea Rossi

    Jan Srajer:
    Thank you for your kind opinion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  170. Sam

    Hello DR Rossi

    Interesting Documentary about
    the life and work of Nikola Tesla.

    https://youtu.be/tzD8sFvH4PA?si=OPOFp9foun2lZ83S

    Regards
    Sam

  171. Andrea Rossi

    Sam:
    Thank you for the link,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  172. Jan Šrajer

    Mr.Rossi
    I think that the delay in the presentation is caused by wider external contexts and not the essence of the research E-catSKLep.

    All the best. J.Š.

  173. Jean Paul Renoir

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Can you explain the exact reason why you had to delay the EV test and suspend the live streaming ?
    Best,
    JPR

  174. Andrea Rossi

    Jean Paul Renoir:
    Paul is right. So far.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  175. Paul

    @Jean Paul Renoir
    I think the obvious answer is the E-Cat is not working well enough for these demos.

  176. Andrea Rossi

    Sam:
    Thank you for your moving links about Paul Dirac: he discovered what we todat call the electron’s Zitterbewegung and his lecture about the electrons shown in this link is extremely interesting: the ZBW is at the base of the theoretical bases of the Ecat, as explained in the paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  177. Sam

    Hello DR Rossi

    This is a 1975 Paul Dirac Lecture.

    https://youtu.be/2GwctBldBvU?si=0MkMYI4BnP_ngCAG

    Regards
    Sam

  178. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Recent news has reported charging problems on Tesla Electric Vehicles (EVs) due to the extreme cold conditions causing problems with supercharging the Tesla EVs.

    The Tesla Battery system has four battery modules with each module about 12″ in width. Two of the Tesla modules are about 68″ long while the center two modules are about 73″ in length.

    “The ideal Tesla battery temperature range is 60F (15.6°C) to 80F (26.7°C). The Lithium-Ion battery found in Tesla electric vehicles functions optimally within this temperature range, allowing you to travel further per charge.” – Internet

    Assume an addition was added to the bottom of the Tesla Battery System that contained multiple eCat SKLep NGU units. Further assume each unit was on a metal (conductive) square approximately 6″ x 6″ in size. On each plate is a microcontroller, a 10W NGU unit, a small rechargeable battery to run the microcontroller, and a power resistor. The microcontroller is assumed to contain a temperature sensor. The microcontroller turns the NGU unit on and off based on sensed temperature. When the NGU unit is on, the small rechargeable battery could be charged and the power resistor heats the metal square.

    These squares are attached to the bottom of the Tesla Battery System and then covered with an insulation layer on the exterior (bottom) side. A total of 92 such units would cover the Tesla Battery System. These units in total would produce up to 920 Watts of thermal power to warm the Tesla Battery System.

    With a specified NGU operating lifetime of 100,000 hours, the NGU “heaters” would outlive the likely life of the Tesla EV as the NGU units would only need to be active when the Battery System temperature was too cold.

    No NGU electrical power is provided to the Tesla Battery System so there are no Battery System electrical interface issues.

    This would reduce the amount of Tesla Battery System energy needed to pre-conditioning the Tesla Battery System prior to supercharging. Tesla Pre-conditioning reduces the range of the Tesla EV but is reduces the supercharger charging time.

    Cost for one Tesla EV so equipped would increase by around $2,000 to $3,000.

  179. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels,
    Thank you for your insight
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  180. Wilfried

    @ Angelo V.:

    The risk of radioactive substances from these batteries being deliberately or accidentally released into the environment or even into food is not economically manageable. That’s why I don’t think these batteries will work.

    Best regards
    Wilfried

  181. Roberto

    Dr Rossi,
    Eniline, a subsidiary of the Italian oil company ENI, has made an agreement with Ryan Air to supply 100,000 tonn of bio-fuel for aviation: I think it is a technology you patented in the year 1978: thoughts ?
    Best,
    Roberto

  182. Andrea Rossi

    Roberto:
    ENI’s subsidiary AGIP NUCLEARE bought my technology of 1978 in the year 1980 and has the right to make of it what they want,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  183. Angelo V.

    <> from https://world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Nuclear-battery-Chinese-firm-aiming-for-mass-mark
    Dear Ing. Rossi what do you think about this news, if confirmed: do you think this new technology will eventually be a major competitor of yours, or do you think your E-Cat NGU would benefit in some way? Do you think the cost of producing energy could be a factor in yours advantage? Or could you focus more on the power generated for the same mass (or weight)?
    Don’t you think that the time factor is becoming more and more important?
    Best regards

  184. Andrea Rossi

    Angelo V.:
    Thank you for the information. That is a nuclear device that uses the heat emitted to generate electricity with the Seebeck Effect.
    It has nothing to do with our technology and we prefer not to connect radioactive materials with the Ecat.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  185. Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    It may be a bit premature to speculate on the maximum estimated amount of energy that the E-Cat NGU and its accessories will produce during one lifecycle. Nevertheless, I suspect you have goals regarding the price per MWh.

    Do you expect more or less than $10 per MWh?
    That is approximately equivalent to the cost of oil in the 1960s.

    The spot price of electricity in Europe generally ranges between 40 and 100 € per MWh. I assume that long-term contracts with major producers are priced much lower.

    I am asking this to get an idea of whether the E-Cat NGU will be more of a panacea or a welcome addition to existing energy sources.

    Kind regards,

    Koen

  186. Andrea Rossi

    Koen Vandewalle,
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  187. Walter

    @Koen Vandewalle
    It could be even more: 15 €ct/kwh=150 €/MWh: (sorry, i found this news just in german)
    https://www.iwr.de/news.php?id=38518
    Neues Atomkraftwerk Hinkley Point C – Strom kostet zum Start über 15 Cent pro Kilowattstunde

    And the chance that it will be even higher once it is accomplished is possible.
    Best regards
    Walter

  188. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Imagine – a person had an Off-Grid Inverter at his primary residence that accepted Grid power, had battery back-up, and solar and/or eCat DC power input(s). Such Off-Grid Inverters are plentiful and are relatively inexpensive.

    Imagine also an eCat power “suitcase” that could provide, say 1.6 kW of electrical power, either DC, single phase (120VAC), or 2-phase (240VAC) electrical power.

    While the resident was living at home, the “suitcase” would provide DC power to the Off-Grid Inverter. The Off-Grid Inverter would provide power to the residential home and/or charge the batteries as needed. In the event of a Grid power black-out, the Inverter would provide all needed electrical power to the residential home via the battery back-up and/or the “suitcase”. When Grid power was available, the Inverter would prioritize the DC input power (solar or “suitcase”), then the battery back-up, then the Grid as the source of needed electrical power for the residence.

    When the resident went to his cabin in the woods or was in his recreational vehicle (trailer or mobile home), he takes the “suitcase” with him to provide remote power. A 1.6 kW capacity should be capable of supporting remote electrical needs such as a small air-conditioner and/or a small electric stove, lights, etc.

    Using this approach, the “suitcase” would always be functioning (other than when being transported). This maximizing its economic savings or return on investment.

    Thoughts?

  189. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your idea,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  190. Walter

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    would it be possible that you offer your ecat also in connection with D.C. electric heating? Maybe together with an established manufacturer, all integrated in a radiator, space-saving without inverter?
    It would be lossy, costly and an additional error source to work electric heating with ecat AND inverter. Every radiator could have its own ecats, so no plug and heating pipes are needed. It would make housebuilding cheaper and easier. And it will be the biggest market, because most of the energy is used for space heating.
    Best regards
    Walter

  191. Andrea Rossi

    Walter:
    That would be possible.
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  192. Anonymous

    What the hell can be the function of the Casimir force in the Ecat, as reported in the paper authored by you on Researchgate
    Ecat the new fire and long range particle interactions ?
    Besides: how can go electrons at c being fermions ?
    Can you answer, please ?

  193. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Thank you for your opinion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  194. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    A few questions:

    1. Has the NGU design stabilized where you can go into limited or full-scale production?
    2. How many NGU units have been made? 10’s, 100’s, 1,000’s?
    3. Has testing of the NGU unit(s) shown compliance with all specifications?

  195. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    1. no, because the term depends on factors some of which do not depend on us
    2. hundreds of prototypes, all under tests
    3. premature
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  196. Rachel Corrie

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    will E-Cat NGUs be able to emit light:

    1) In all directions?
    2) In two directions (forward and back)?
    3) In one direction only?

    Have A Nice Day

    Rachel

  197. Andrea Rossi

    Rachel Corrie:
    Depends on the specific situations,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  198. Anonymous

    Dr Rossi,
    I read the paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    that in the theoretical process at the base of the Ecat there is also the involvement of the Casimir effect: is it still so ?
    Thank you if you can answer.

  199. Rachel Corrie

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    I will try to rephrase my question:

    Let’s imagine PV panels built perpendicular to the ground in such a way that the whole structure looks like a honeycomb when viewed from above.

    Six PV panels placed perpendicular to the ground in a hexagon and one E-Cat NGU in the middle of this hexagon.

    In this way, one E-Cat NGU could illuminate six PV panels if the E-Cat NGU is able to emit light in all directions (omnidirectionally).

    Truly omnidirectional would mean that additional PV panels could form the “roof” of each hexagon, and one E-Cat NGU could illuminate even more PV panels than six at once.

    If the E-Cat NGU is not able to emit light in all directions, at least the ability of the E-Cat NGU to emit light in two directions (bidirectionally) – to shine forward and backward at the same time – would help to increase the economic efficiency. The PV panels could be placed in a row behind each other and one E-Cat NGU could light two PV panels at once.

    Will E-Cat NGUs be able to emit light:

    1) In all directions?
    2) In two directions?
    3) One way only?

    Have A Nice Day

    Rachell

  200. Anonimous

    I think the best thing is that the Ecat makes electricity and the customer makes of it what he wants enjoying the whole efficiency of the Ecat NGU, although to couple it with existing solar systems can be a good way to make easier to exploit the exixting authorizations and grid agreements

  201. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another application for eCat technology

    Farmers are always looking for way to reduce expenditures.

    In the USA, there are approximately 300,000 farms. In each farm there are water pumps, from small ones used for residential water, to larger ones used for irrigational purposes.

    For pumps that run nearly continuously, it may make sense to convert to NGU-generated electricity. Power requirements for the pumps range from sub-kiloWatt to hundreds of kiloWatts, depending on the type and the application.

    Thoughts?

  202. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    1. not necessarily
    2. yes: every passage reduces the efficiency.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  203. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    For the eCat SKLep NGU units –

    1. Do you envision the solar panel application of NGU units is only used for existing solar panels?
    2. Would NGU units configured to directly produce electricity (as opposed to light) be more efficient in producing power than the NGU units producing light and then converting the light to electricity via the solar panel?

  204. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestions,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  205. Rachel Corrie

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    your streaming problems will be solved a minute after you replace the Windows OS computer connected to the camera with a Linux OS computer. No more hundreds of restarts and forced updates.

    Let me ask you one question: Will the E-Cat NGU be able to light the panels omnidirectionally or bidirectionally, or will it only light in one direction?

    Have A Nice Weekend

    Rachel

  206. Andrea Rossi

    Rachel Corrie:
    Thank you for the suggestion.
    I do not understand exactly your question: can you kindly rephrase it ?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  207. M.Elshoff

    Dear Dr. Rossi
    If you know about Neutrino Power,what do you think about it, is it Realiti , or a Fake ?

    https://www.energy-news.net/whispers-of-change-ushering-in-an-era-of-neutrinovoltaic-empowerment/

  208. Andrea Rossi

    M.Elshoff:
    Sorry, I do not have knowledge of the item.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  209. Paul

    Hello Mr Rossi.
    What is the status of the E-cat streaming that was planned for restart in December. You recently said the safety problems which caused the stop were solved with the NGU. It seems fairly simple to connect the NGU up and turn on the cam. Are there other explanations for the the delay, such as limited number (or no) units available because they are being used for development activities?

  210. Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    Yes, the non stop streaming poses problems that are different from a normal use, this is why we are worried and still working on it.
    I can say that we are mathematically sure we will restart the public streaming not later than March 2024. It is already running, but not in public mode and we want to be sure we will not have troubles once we go public for a streaming that has to run for years never stopping.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  211. Maico

    Steven Nicholes Karels

    The elements reported in your post would require a very detailed “comparison” that could hardly be exhausted in a few words.
    As spectators of this “new energy revolution” that Dr. Rossi is trying to “start”, we cannot do anything other than try to “best understand” the information he provides us on the blog, trying to build our own “mental image” of what Ecat can be and the performances it can have, waiting for all this data and information to be revealed to the whole world 😉
    From what I understand, in the next semester (we don’t yet know the official dates and therefore I’m deliberately keeping it “loose”) we will have the opportunity to see:

    1) The reactivation of the streaming of the Mini Sklep NGU which in SSM powers an LED bulb (we already know what it will consist of)

    2) The demo of the “solar system” which, working in synergy with mini SKlep NGUs, is able to produce in 24 hours (just to consider both the presence of the sun and its absence) a quantity of energy X times greater than that produced by the same solar system without Mini Sklep NGU (hence the term “multiply” that Rossi used in his posts). I am very curious about this new type of Demo, to date not much is known about it, but I am sure that in due time Dr. Rossi will be able to surprise us a lot!!!

    and maybe (I hope this too within the first semester, but to date we don’t have any information about it)
    3) also the Ecat-EV Demo which will certainly generate a lot of interest (especially because having already talked about it a lot in the past we know quite well the Test protocol that Dr. Rossi intends to use and therefore we know that he has all the cards in hand rule to become a “mind-blowing” and “convincing” demo)

    Sorry if I haven’t entered into a “technical comparison” but as you rightly say, without official technical information ours would only be “suppositions” and therefore we will only be able to make speeches not substantiated by “certain information” 😉
    Furthermore, I believe that Rossi’s blog is not the right place to deal with the exchange of opinions between “followers”, the blog is the place where we expose our questions and where he answers when he can. 🙂

    I’ll stop here, thanks for the feedback on my post, now let’s leave room for Dr. Rossi…..

    I am sure that behind everything that Dr Rossi has done up to now and is still doing there is a very complex and elaborate plan to bring his Ecat Technology to the market in the shortest possible time, with a high level of industrialization and reliability, having already overcome the challenges and therefore acquired experience in the integration of the Ecat Sklep NGU in 2 very specific areas:

    1) Solar Systems
    2) and Electric Mobility

    Ciao Maico

  212. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Maico,

    I also enjoy great discussions on JONP. You and I both suffer from a lack of detailed information on exactly how eCat SKLep NGU technology works. And therefore, we do not precisely know its capabilities and its limitations.

    The regenerative energy recapture is important in two major effects: (1) retrieving energy from braking the car to recharge the Battery System; and (2) to assist in vehicle braking. Recharging the Battery System is not needed if eCat technology is providing sufficient energy to run the vehicle. The regenerative braking energy could be dumped into a resistive network to dissipate the energy. This would actually be a benefit as a 100% charged Battery System does not support regenerative braking. Alternatively, if a Battery System was present and only partially recharged, say to 80% of nominal capacity, then the Battery System could always handle the regenerative energy.

    My concerns about the dynamic load on the eCat system is based on AR’s past comments on the eCat technology’s inability to handle power factors different than 1.0. Maybe they have addressed his deficiency/issue. The solution that the eCat SKLep technology simply shuts down if this problem occurs is not acceptable in a vehicle that requires a constant, but varying source of power.

    The other implicit issue, that can be solved but might be very costly, is accommodating all the different EV manufacturers and their different implementations and requirements. It might easily overwhelm AR’s talented but personnel limited team. The integration would need to shift to the EV manufacturer’s responsibility with some standard interface being provided by AR.

    Lastly, the cost of AR components, right now, is much higher than equivalent Lithium battery technologies. What helps to increase the cost is all the environmental controls on the EV Battery System to accommodate too hot or too cold conditions. I suspect that the eCat SKLep units may have environmental limitations that are outside the required automotive environment allowed conditions.

    As AR has frequently said, some form of integrated approach will be required. I believe it is likely that a combination of Battery System and eCat technology would be employed. Imaging a Battery System, working the huge dynamic range required for an EV but never requiring recharging, always keep in the “sweet zone” of temperature and the “sweet zone” for State of Charge. The Battery System would outlast the EV.

    Thoughts?

  213. Maico

    Dear Dr. Rossi

    I always follow with great interest the “exchanges of opinion” that you very kindly allow on your blog.

    I’m referring to the statement made by Steven Nicholes Karels, specifically, that an array of Ecat Sklep NGU units cannot replace a Tesla battery as the Ecat may have problems with rapidly changing loads.
    To this statement you reply that interfacing with an EV is not simple and that it depends on the characteristics of the systems of the different manufacturers.

    If I can I would like to try to have my say, hoping for a kind response from him.

    Based on what he wrote several times in his blog:

    1) If the power demand of the load connected to the Ecat SKlep NGU array does not exceed the “nominal” power for which the array was assembled, I ABSOLUTELY DO NOT BELIEVE that there could be problems managing highly variable loads!!! (at worst, in the event of a request for power greater than the “nominal” one, the Ecat would be turned off, as you stated on several occasions)

    Can you kindly confirm/comment on this statement of mine?

    If the answer to point 1 was Yes, I continue with my second thought:

    I perfectly understand his statement that the interfacing of the ECAT SKLep NGU depends on the characteristics of the systems of the different manufacturers, but I sincerely believe that the ECAT EV Demo has, specifically, these purposes:
    perfectly understand his statement that the interfacing of the ECAT SKLep NGU depends on the characteristics of the systems of the different manufacturers, but I sincerely believe that the ECAT EV Demo has, specifically, these purposes:

    2) Demonstrate to the whole world that the ECAT-EV, appropriately set up and configured thanks to its AI, is perfectly capable of managing highly variable loads that remain within the power manageable by the specific configuration.

    3) Demonstrate to the whole world, thanks to the Electric vehicle used in your Demo (which as you have already stated is an electric vehicle from a “prime” car manufacturer), that interfacing with an Electric Vehicle has already been carried out by you and your Team and that therefore this is absolutely feasible, guaranteeing the normal operation of the Ecat SKlep NGU Array during the movement of the Electric Vehicle itself, thus guaranteeing the recharging of the batteries during its normal operation.

    4) When the car manufacturers see what you and your team have been able to do, the issue of specific interfacing with the “electrical” management systems of the various vehicle manufacturers will become “negligible”. They are the same producers of Electric Vehicles who, knowing perfectly the characteristics of their “products”, have all the knowledge to integrate the Ecat inside their Vehicles. In this way they will make the considerable amount of energy coming from the ECAT easily usable for recharging the battery, both when the vehicle is stationary and in motion. At this point for these electric vehicle manufacturers, with the support of you and your team who have already carried out the study and implemented the integration of the ECAT-EV in the demo, it will be very easy to integrate the ECAT into their vehicles. . There is no doubt if the ECat-Ev demo is successful… it will be the beginning of the “revolution” of electric mobility!!!

    5) in summary I think the purpose of your Ecat-EV demo is

    5a) demonstrate to the whole world that the Ecat is perfectly capable of functioning inside an electric vehicle
    5b) that integration into an electric vehicle is feasible (in fact you will demonstrate it “effectively”, to the whole world, in the Ecat-EV demo)
    5c) that you and your team have the necessary know-how to collaborate with the various electric vehicle manufacturers, to make them autonomous in this integration, thus bringing the ECat into their vehicles

    I sincerely hope I haven’t asked too “direct” questions/statements

    I certainly gave vent to my imagination/hope….. but seeing how you have always acted in these years, you have never done anything that didn’t have a very specific aim and purpose.

    6) As I see it, continuing to prepare the Ecat-EV demo can only mean one thing and that is that you are convinced that it is feasible and that when you feel ready you will demonstrate it “effectively” to the whole world !!! 😉

    I thank you in advance even just for “reading” me and I sincerely hope that you can publish me on your blog possibly replying/commenting on some or all (I hope the latter) of my “externalities” 😉

    thanks again for your “consideration”

    Regards Maico

  214. Andrea Rossi

    Maico:
    Thank you for your intelligent considerartions, clearly coming from an expert of the matter; about my answers, I prefer to delay them after the test we will make,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  215. Gavino Mamia

    Doctor Rossi,
    I understand the specific difficulties of the characteristics of each type of vehicle, but I am interested in the existence of a vehicle that does not require fossil fuels.
    All I need is that there is one, then everyone will choose the color they prefer and the most suitable setup.
    That would already be a lot

  216. Andrea Rossi

    Gavino Mamia:
    Agreed,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  217. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    An array of eCat SKLep NGU units cannot replace a Tesla Battery System. One of the functions of the Tesla Battery System is to absorb the regenerative energy that braking provides. In addition, I understand that the NGU units may have problems with rapidly changing loads, which are one of the characteristics of automotive motor requirements.

  218. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    The interfacing is not simple and it depends on all the specific characteristics of the different manufacturers,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  219. Andrea Rossi

    Jacobia Altrovious:
    Yet not enough,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  220. Jacobia Altrovius

    Dear Dr. Rossi.
    You have been collecting orders for almost 2 years now.
    How many have been ordered, or how far are we from the 1 million orders placed?

  221. Anonymous

    Did I understand well that connecting the Ecat SKL NGU to an existing photovoltaic solar system, the system multiplies by a factor >>1 its efficiency ?

  222. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Obviously you are referring to
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Answers:
    1- about the Casimir Effect, please read well the paragraph 1 of that publication and the references in it, detailed in the paragraph “Bibliography”
    2- about the speed of the light: you are right, the electrons, being Fermions, cannot reach c, but if you read carefully the same paper you cited, in particular in paragraph 5, you will learn that along our theoretical principles, it is not the electron that travels at c, but it is its charge’s motion around the Zitterbewegung orbit that travels at the speed of light: also about this matter you can find corroborating issues in the references and their details in the Bibliography.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  223. Tom

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    it is this link: https://www.boredpanda.com/tesla-owner-locked-out-car-26000-dollars-new-battery/
    According to the high price of 140,000 $ and the year it should be a 90 kwh battery (and 1:1 replaced with your ecat it would be even cheaper).
    Best regards
    Tom

  224. Andrea Rossi

    Tom:
    Thank you for the link,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  225. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    The cold temperature problem for Tesla charging can be easily solved by eCat technology.

    The problem is that fast charging (i.e., Tesla Supercharging) requires the Tesla Battery System to be above a certain temperature. However, this is not true if slow charging is used.

    Consider:

    1. 16 each 100W SKLep NGU units tied to produce 1,600W at 48 VDC. Current will be about 33 Amperes.
    2. mounted in a suitcase or other hard enclosure.
    3. with a suitable 48VDC to 110VSC inverter, such as Pure Sine Wave Inverter (1600W-8000W), 12V/24V/48V/60V to 110V/220V Car Inverter, with AC Outlet + Digital Display,1600W-48Vto110V – price about $100USD, available on Amazon.
    4. Use the Tesla Mobile which will default to the 110VAC input at 12 Amperes or about 1.4 kW charging power.
    5. Connect the output of the inverter to the Tesla Mobile Connector unit and slowly charge the Tesla vehicle.

    Even with Sentry mode on (which consumes about 0.25 kW) there is still enough charging power to slowly charge the Tesla Battery System, but not enough power to heat the Tesla Battery System.

    If Tesla Supercharging is desired, have a sufficient Battery System State of Charge to drive to the Tesla Supercharger with Preconditioning On to warm up the Battery System before attempting the Tesla Supercharging.

    The only issue remaining is the physical securing of the suitcase and inverter and Mobile Connector units. This could be solved if Tesla added an internally mounted charging port in the Frunk. Here, all items would be inside the Frunk and thus secure from theft.

    Thoughts?

  226. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels,
    Thank you for this information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  227. Tom

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    as i read today the replacement of a battery of a Tesla car after 8 years costs 26,000 $.
    It would be time that your invention come to the market as soon as possible!
    Best regards
    Tom

  228. Andrea Rossi

    Tom:
    Which power does this battery have ?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  229. Steven Nicholes Karels

    The Need for Tesla Onboard Charging

    Cold Temperatures in Chicago render Tesla cars unchargeable.

    If you own a Tesla, as I do, just getting to a Tesla Supercharger may not be enough. The EV Battery System must be of sufficient temperature to be able to accept charging.

    From a news report:

    “One expert told the news outlet that cold weather can impact the ability of electric vehicles to charge properly.

    “It’s not plug and go. You have to precondition the battery, meaning that you have to get the battery up to the optimal temperature to accept a fast charge,” said Mark Bilek of the Chicago Auto Trade Association.”

    If you have a home charger and always plug-in, then the Tesla car will keep the battery in an acceptable temperature range and adequately charged.

    But, if you park on the street with no charger and the temperature drops, you may not be able to charge at a supercharger if the battery system’s temperature gets too low.

    The solution would be onboard charging, at least enough to keep the Battery System at an acceptable temperature.

    Thoughts?

  230. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  231. Gene Quong

    I live in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada where we have an abundance of Telsa electric cars. On the way to my
    local library (about 2 km) I counted 10 Telsa cars Two Telsa automobiles are parked within two hundred meters
    of my house. For a preliminary demonstration your company could just charge Telsa cars only. I ordered 3 eCats (100 W)
    on January, 2022, and I wish you a very successful 2024. One eCat would be very useful. I used a power meter to
    measure the maximum and minimum input wattage needed to power a Windows 10 computer. The minimum is 20 watts
    and the maximum is 80 watts. The Power Supply is rated at 240 Watts.

  232. Andrea Rossi

    Gene Quong:
    Thank you for the suggestions,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  233. Tom Kaminski

    There are many possible applications for the ecat. One came to me as I was helping my wife shop for a new bike (hers was stolen). We looked a number of different bikes, including eBikes. In the end she chose a non-electric bike of the “commuter” variety. However, I was quite impressed by the progress eBikes have made since I last looked at (and purchased!) one.
    Bosch typically provides the motors, controllers, and batteries for many of the bikes. It is estimated that over 25 Million eBikes were sold in 2022. A typical battery is a 36 volt, 400AHr battery driving a 250 to 500 Watt motor. On a flat path, the bike/battery range is about 50 miles. A Bosch “compact” charger provides about 2 Amps of current and charges the 400AHr battery in 6.5 hours. A replacement battery is about $700. I estimate that 10, 10 Watt SKLep devices would fit on top of the battery and could provide the energy to charge the battery. The eBike would then have either extended range (nearly 100 miles in 6.5 hours at 15 MPH), or never have to be connected to mains for charging, making it very easy to operate the bike. The $250 cost of 10 SKLep devices is a fraction (1/3) of the cost of the battery, but would nearly double the range of the bike.
    I live in a Condo with no electrical outlets for the charger. Out on a trail, there are also no connections for a charger. It would be convenient never to have to charge the bike battery.
    The town I live in has a bike rental service with bike racks spread out around the city. The racks have solar panels to power the electronics that charge the fees and connect with a phone app. For a daily fee, you can ride bikes between the bike racks up to one hour per ride. When the vendor switched from peddle bikes to eBikes, daily ridership tripled. The bike racks do not have chargers – a service van rotates between sites to replace discharged batteries.
    Many cities also have rental electric scooters. Most do not have charging facilities. Again, the ecat SKLep or its evolution could be used to provide a needed upgrade to the electric scooters.
    1). Have you considered eBike augmentation?
    2). Have you considered electric scooter augmentation?

  234. Andrea Rossi

    Tom Kaminski:
    Not yet, thank you for the suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  235. Andrea Rossi

    Walter Oggioni:
    Yes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  236. Raffaele Bongo

    Hello Dr. Rossi
    You are currently working with light energy from ecat to improve the performance of solar panels.
    We know that ecat produces, before any transformation, very strong light, heat and electricity.
    Can you remind me :

    1 – what is the emitted light power and spectrum?
    I remember that this light was very intense and that you had to protect your eyes with specially adapted glasses.

    2 – What is the role of heat?

    3 – What is the electrical power before any manipulation?
    We know that you produce 10 W per unit

    Best regards

    Raffaele

  237. Andrea Rossi

    Raffaele Bongo:
    I am sorry, this information is restricted, so far.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  238. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Peterbilt Model 579EV
    Class 8 vehicle
    GSWR: 82,000 lbs
    Range on fill charge: 150 miles
    Battery capacity: 400 kW-hrs
    cost: approximately $350,000USD

    Again, US regulations limit driving to 13.5 hours in a 24-hour day.

    efficiency = 400 kW-hrs/150 miles = 2.67 kW-hrs/mile

    Daily range = 13.5 hours * 75 mph = 1,012.5 miles.

    Daily energy usage = 1,012.5 miles * 2.67 kW-hrs/mile = 2,703 kW-hrs.

    Subtract 400 kW-hrs leaves 2,303 kW-hrs

    Required power from eCat unit = 2,303 kW-hrs / 14 hrs = 164 kW

    To account for losses, an eCat unit delivering 175 kW will be required.

  239. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  240. Gene Quong

    Dear Andrea Rossi:

    You are trying to demonstrate that the ECats (100 W) can be mounted on a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) and charge it continuously, so the driving range of the BEV is increased by a very large
    amount without stopping. To simplify this demonstration the ECats could be used as a stationary charging station. Tesla EVs have gone through many design iterations over the years, and one of
    the most-revised parts of Tesla’s design has been the high voltage battery. The early years of the Model S and Model X saw everything from a 40 kWh battery pack to a massive 100 kWh pack, with
    plenty of packs in between. For example, if you charged a Telsa with a 40 kwh battery pack you could aggregate 80 ECats (100W) together for a total of 8 kw to charge the Telsa battery from 20% to
    80% (this seems the best way to charge a BEV). A 20% charge would 8 kwh, the 80% charge would 32 kwh. The charging time would 24 / 8 = 3 hours. Just invite 3rd party independent companies to
    come to your factory. You could do a Youtube video where you charge multiple BEV’s to prove that ECats do not require fuel. Telsa and BYD are major BEV manufacturers, so you could concentrate on
    those two companies in the beginning. You could suspend the 8 kw ECat module on a small plexiglass platform to show that there are no hidden power or ground wires.

    Gene Quong

  241. Andrea Rossi

    Gene Quong,
    Yes, that’s where we want to arrive to, but it is very difficult, albeit not impossible, because presently we have to make an interfacial system to connect the Ecat to every specific car.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  242. Raffaele Bongo

    Hello Dr. Rossi
    You are currently working with light energy from ecat to improve the performance of solar panels.
    We know that ecat produces, before any transformation, very strong light, heat and electricity.
    Can you remind me :

    1 – what is the emitted light power and spectrum?
    I remember that this light was very intense and that you had to protect your eyes with specially adapted glasses.

    2 – What is the role of heat?

    3 – What is the electrical power before any manipulation?
    We know that you produce 10 W per unit

    Best regards

    Raffaele

  243. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Some additional facts on the Tesla Semi
    1. Battery System is an 800 VDC system.
    2. Standard range uses 600 kW Battery system.
    3. Longer range version uses a 1 MW Battery system.

  244. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  245. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    The following is known (from open reports):
    1. The Tesla Semi has delivered 100 Semis to Pepsico and the Pepsico Semis are in daily use.
    2. There are open orders for the Tesla Semi of 4,000 units.
    3. 2025 production is expected to be 10,000 to 15,000 units.
    4. by 2027, annual production is estimated to be 30,000 units.

    The major uncertainty for possible Tesla Semi purchasers is the lack of Semi charging infrastructure. The Tesla Semis require a different supercharger than the Tesla cars.

    If eCat technology was added, the Semi infrastructure issue goes away.

    The Tesla Semi is large enough to accommodate a 100 kW eCat SKLep NGU unit. If you make the product (and it really works), they will come.

    Thoughts?