Rossi Blog Reader

This website tracks recent postings to Andrea Rossi's Journal of Nuclear Physics, sorting the entries with priority to Rossi's answers, which appear under each question.


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• Updated: 2024-05-20 16:10:09.318238Z

  1. Josè Ferreira

    Dr Rossi,
    I followed the answer you gave to Frank Acland on May 15 about the paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Reading the Nelson patent and the paragraphs you referred to I think I understood how the Ecat works. Basically Ecat SKLep and Ecat NGU are the same thing, correct ?
    Thank you for the work of you and your team,
    Josè

  2. Andrea Rossi

    Josè Ferreira:
    Correct,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  3. Roberto

    I agree

  4. Gene Quong

    I just used my Dewalt portable hammer drill which requires 12 VDC to run. The drill at full power lasts about 15 minutes. You could make a live demonstration in a local church with the pastor
    looking a portable plexiglass cage. Just verify that they are no hidden power sources by using a Geiger counter. Then run the demonstration for 12 hours. Have the entire church watch! The next
    step is to get the Pope to watch. Then tell everyone else to bugger off. You have many enemies, by doing this demonstration you will have God on your side.

  5. Andrea Rossi

    Gene Quong:
    I appreciate the spirit of your suggestion, but I don’t think that a strumentalization of the Church with propagandistic goals should be a good idea: we serve God every day also by doing our work with Faith.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  6. Andrea Rossi

    ELVIRA Jean Claude:
    Merci beaucoup pour votre gentil comment et encouragement
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  7. ELVIRA Jean-Claude

    Bonjour Docteur ROSSI et bonjour aussi à toute votre équipe

    Je vous suis depuis des décennies et je tiens à vous dire combien je suis impatient de voir vos démonstrations…je crois fermement que cela va bouleverser et changer le monde…je crois que votre inventions va amener la Paix et l’Espérence pour l’Humanité entière…dépêchez-vous s’il vous plait…bientôt,j’aurais 80 ans et j’espère voir cette Révolution…et ainsi laisser de l’espoir à toute ma descendance… Je vous remercie du fond du coeur pour ce que vous êtes entrain de faire pour les hommes du monde entier…
    Jean-Claude ELVIRA

  8. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear JONP Users

    Progress Report on my Home Residential eCat NGU Design

    I am basing the design on 100W eCat NGU modules.

    My average electrical power consumption over the last year varies from 1.0 kW to 2.5 kW. The variation correlated with the summer months where I use central air-conditioning (electric) and it is lowest during the winter months when I use my gas furnace. My water heater is gas.

    I have a Tesla Wall charger. The above average kW includes the use of the Tesla Wall charger.

    For my conceptual design, I am planning to use 16 100W NGU units, connected by terminal boards in series, so that a power source of 1.6 kW at 12 VDC (and 8.33 Amps) is available. Conceptually, I could add an additional 16 100W NGU units and feed the NGU-generated power into the second PV input of the 6000XP. The 6000XP is rated to handle up to 8kW of PV input power. The serial connection is required to provide a voltage acceptable to the inverter.

    The off-grid inverter is an EG4 6000XP. One, with the option of a second 6000XP unit, will be used.

    The battery will be a Ruixu RX-LFP48100 Battery with a wall mount option. The 6000XP will be programmed to limit the battery charge and discharge current to 50 Amps. A single battery will connect to the 6000XP inverter.

    The 6000XP will accept the power from the serially connected NGU units when the power is fed to the inverter’s PV input. The 6000XP communicates with the battery via a comm cable.

    The battery serves as an additional energy source when transient conditions occur, such as the air-conditioning start-up.

    The priorities on the inverter will be: (1) the PV input (i.e., the NGU power); (2) the battery (set up to discharge between 90% and 10%) but limited in current; and (3) the electrical grid input – limited to 50AMP @ 240VAC.

    If the battery is discharged to the battery’s lowest allowed level, then Grid power will supplement the NGU power.

    The Tesla Wall unit will not be tied to the inverter output, but it will receive power directly from the electrical grid. The justification is that it is a high current requirement and only runs a short time, so that I can achieve reasonably fast recharge times.

    Optionally, the electric oven and stove may not be connected to the inverter output as they are high current loads.

    Conceptually, a second 6000XP and battery could be paralleled if additional power is needed.

    Current pricing:

    EG4 6000XP inverter – $1,399 USD
    Ruixu RX-LFP48100 Battery – $1,199USD

    A different design philosophy is needed compared to Solar inverters where the PV power is available only a few hours per day. In the PV case, the battery must have sufficient capacity to handle power demands when the PV is not outputting power (e.g., at night).

    With the 24/7, 100,000 hours of the NGU, a different approach, I believe, is needed.

    Thoughts?

  9. Anonymous

    What do you think about the prototype of Prometheus ?

  10. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Interesting proposal to produce hydrogen without electrolysis.
    Good luck !
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  11. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    You have posted on X a new photo of a high vacuum system (https://e-catworld.com/2024/05/15/leonardo-corporation-tweets-photo-of-high-vacuum-system/, https://twitter.com/LeonardoCorpor3/status/1790532998875517374)

    1. Is the high vacuum system necessary to manufacture the E-Cat NGUs?

    2. Can you explain what is the purpose of the high vacuum system?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  12. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Thank you for the links.
    Answers:
    1- Yes
    2- Because it is necessary to perform like described here:
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    See par 2.1 ,5, 6 and Nelson reference in Abstract
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  13. Andrea Rossi

    Gerard Huebl:
    Both,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  14. Gerald Huebl

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    you recently said that the NGU has reached Sigma 4 – is this valid for:
    1. the device (the “hardware”)
    2. the control system
    3. or both?

    thanks for your never-ending willingness to answer all the many questions from the curious crowd!
    all the best to you and you team,
    Gerald

  15. Anonymous

    Dr Rossi,
    How many are the probabilities that you will make a demonstration of an EV powered by the Ecat SKLep NGU within this year ?

  16. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Today I’d say 90%,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  17. Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    Please go to
    http://www.rossilivecat.com
    to find comments published in other posts of this blog,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  18. Lars Lindberg

    Dear Andrea,
    With zero point energy do you think it is possible to get out all the energy you need for as long as you need? Is there something consumed with zero point energy? If a sociaty learns how to fully that advantage of zero point energy, there is no need for any other energy source?

  19. Andrea Rossi

    Lars Lindberg:
    I think humanity will always need an aggregated system of all the available energy sources intelligently integrated,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  20. Simon

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    could there be future problems with the naming rights of your company which is the same like the italian armaments concern Leonardo?
    Best regards
    Simon

  21. Andrea Rossi

    Simon:
    We are not and want not to be involved in any army issues,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  22. Pavel

    Dr Rossi,
    Which is the rationale of the reverse difference of entropy that generates the zero point energy ?

  23. Anonymous

    Can you tell us which Sigma level the NGU reached so far ?

  24. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    4
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  25. Anonymous

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    I imagine you are looking for the Sigma 5 with some Ecat NGU like the model shown on Ecatworld; am I correct ?
    Thank you for the work you and your team are doing so many years since to complete successfully a so important enterprise.
    All the best,
    Anonymous

  26. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Thank you for your support.
    Answer: you are correct,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  27. Gavino Mamia

    Wilfried
    human beings will always use the latest technologies to wage war. even if we go back to the stone age he will continue to wage wars with femurs and stones

  28. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Wilfried.

    Time to take a deep breath… Ecat technology, like any other new technology, can be used for many reasons and purposes. In my opinion, it is likely to be used in applications where continuous, constant level electrical energy over a very long period of time is needed.

    There are many application areas and I have in the past suggested a few – baseload electrical power generation, long duration transportation (aviation, marine, automotive), long duration communications, lighting.

    Most military applications are too short-lived to find Ecat technology advantageous. But there are likely some military applications that some mind somewhere will find using this technology. As far as I can tell, this technology cannot be used to generate a weapon effect, like a blast or explosion.

    Before declaring that our species is not ready for this technology, perhaps, one should consider possible applications and see if the benefits outweigh the risks. The same thing we individually do every day on our daily drive to and from work.

  29. Wilfried

    @ Steven Nicholes Karels

    I don’t understand their proposals. The first thing the unregulated market will do with the E-Cat is develop durable, pathetic and insidious weapons.
    Humanity is not ready for this energy source.

    Best Regards
    Wilfried

  30. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Long duration (years) Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) are being developed. Ecat Technology could play a key role in providing long-duration electrical power with no acoustic noise generation.

  31. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  32. Paul Dodgshun

    Sir Jim Ratcliffe is founder and chairman of INEOS Group and a successful industrialist in the UK. I agree with his view on REX cars. The REX generator is not involved in meeting peak power demand when the ‘pedal is pressed to the metal’. A REX car looks like a fit for a modest number of SKLep DC generators to operate steadily. Would this avoid the current difficulties with fitting SKLeps to provide peak power? It would certainly reduce the capital cost of the power provision in a car.

    https://www.telegraph.co.uk/business/2024/05/09/demand-electric-cars-dried-up-rethink/
    The interim solution today which serves the needs of the consumer is either the hybrid or electric vehicle with range extender (REX). I like the latter. Bear with me.

    The REX is a fully electric car. It is always electric. Let’s say it has a range of 300km. You can charge it in the normal manner. However, tucked away under the bonnet is a small engine and a generator. The engine powers the generator, when requested, which in turn charges the battery. The engine is not connected to the pedal, so is simple, efficient and reliable.

    The car has a modest fuel tank and in total the car has a range of, let’s say, 700km. You can charge it in the normal way, or you can fill up at a gas station. Why would you ever buy a fully electric car when you have this option of an electric vehicle with a range extender and complete absence of range anxiety?

  33. Andrea Rossi

    Paul Dodgshun:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  34. Max

    Dr. Rossi,
    Assuming you have herd the phrase “Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence” surely you must have done the EV test already to make such a claim. If this is the case than why on earth is this technology not available in production yet? If it’s to fund the legal battles, Get a lone! if Trump can You can too. Just start the process already! Best regards, Max

  35. Andrea Rossi

    Max:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  36. Prof

    Dr Rossi,
    Here are the stats of your papers I found today on
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-CatSK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Total Readings: 141020, of which 129270 only for “Ecat SK and long range particle interactions” (more than 99.9% of 1.5 million publications on Researchgate)
    Recommendations: 11063 (more than 99% of 1.5 million papers on RG)
    Research Interest Score: 2861 (more than 99% of 1.5 million publications on RG)
    Most readings by Cathegories: Energy Engineers, Theoretical Physicists, Chemical Engineers, Researchers, Power Engineers
    Most readings by Seniority: PhD students, Professors, Seniors
    Most readings by Geographic Areas: Europe, America
    And counting…
    Best,
    Prof

  37. Andrea Rossi

    Prof:
    Thank you for the update,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  38. Andrea Rossi

    P.Mueller:
    1- I already explained why this is not possible
    2- I never said that I am sure we will be able to start the deliveries this year, albeit we hope so
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  39. P.Müller

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    1) have you ever thought about to start the production and delivery while you still have not reached the aim of one million pre-orders, but because of you are near to the aim and the pre-orders enter steadily or maybe increasingly?
    2) Are you still sure to start production and delivery this year? Could you mention the presumably month for the start?
    Best regards
    P.Müller

  40. Michel

    About your answer to Steven N. Karels, after 100,000 hours the Ecat will have to be substituted,or will it be possible to refresh it with spare parts ?

  41. Andrea Rossi

    Michel:
    It will be possible to refresh them with spare parts,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  42. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Are you really planning to disable the output of NGU devices when their cumulative operating hours reach 100,000 hours?

  43. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    No,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  44. Maico

    dear DR. Rossi,

    I was very impressed by the response he gave to reader Gavino.

    The intelligent observation that was made to you gave you the opportunity to let us know a very important detail about your product. And precisely that the pre-assembled module assemblies that you will supply as a product (purely by way of example I would cite the 3kw module) already have the EMS (Ecat Management System) component inside them.

    That is, a component specifically designed to “balance” the consumption of the modules in the event of energy requests lower than the plate data of the assembly. This ensures that the “overall” life of the product remains very high, preventing some modules from remaining active longer than others.

    These advanced functions, at least as far as I know, are “economically sustainable” only for already industrialized solutions and therefore indirectly you are giving us evidence of the excellent state of development of your products (i.e. ready for marketing, as soon as it reaches one million of “verified” pre-orders).

    Did I interpret your response correctly?

    Regards Maico

  45. Andrea Rossi

    Maico:
    Correct,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  46. Steven Nicholes Karels

    How I see Residential Application of eCat NGU Technology Proceeding

    1. At $2.50USD per Watt of provided electrical power, the eCat technology is expensive. It takes a long time (maybe years) to offset the initial cost in terms of grid electrical costs.

    2. There are safety concerns about supplying excess electrical power back to the electrical grid. We don’t want to injure grid technicians working on what they believe is an unpowered grid line.

    3. There are grid infrastructure concerns if too many residential sites provide their excess power to the electrical grid, without some type of control from the electrical grid so as to not overload the electrical grid.

    These said, I suggest that the sizing of the eCat NGU units should be based on the average (or alternatively the minimum) monthly use average for the residential home. If so implemented, the power from the electrical grid will be used when additional power is needed, such as with air-conditioning, or heating needs (furnace, oven, stove, water heater). This would significantly lower the grid consumption making more power available or reducing the need for additional power generation plants.

    It is likely that some residential battery storage could augment the residential eCat NGU units to take advantage of the daily variations in power consumption — the battery is discharged during the daytime peak loads and recharged during the nighttime periods of low electrical usage. There are commercial systems that exist and could be used for such an application.

    For other applications, such as Baseload commercial electrical generation, other logic will apply.

    Comments?

  47. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  48. Anonymous

    And in these outsourcing facilities will be made the whole Ecats or only parts of them ?

  49. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Parts of them,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  50. Aninymous

    Dr Rossi,
    Do you think that the application of a capacitance could help the coupling between the Ecat and the battery of an EV ?

  51. Andrea Rossi

    Aninymous,
    USA, Europe, Asia.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  52. Gavino Mamia

    Dear Doctor Rossi
    I’m assuming that the Ecat has some sort of internal counter that will stop it once it reaches 100,000 hours.
    At home I have the limit of 3 KW which is enough for all my appliances.
    When I’m not at home the energy consumption is low, just the fridge and the router, this changes a lot when I return.
    Assuming I replace my 3KW electricity contract with an equivalent 3KW Ecat.
    From what I understand the counter also counts when you actually only use a few modules, so would it be better to have two Ecats, a small one for when I’m not at home and a larger one for when I return?
    Or have you already implemented an artificial intelligence that will make sure to use the “freshest” modules?
    I had already asked a similar question and you replied that you would work on this possibility.
    Good job to you and your entire team

  53. Andrea Rossi

    Gavino Mamia:
    Thank you for your wishes.
    Good question.
    Yes, the Ecat system will have an EMS ( Ecat Management System ) , sort of an A.I. that balances the consume of the modules.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  54. Anonymous

    Dr Rossi,
    can you say where are located the facilities to manufacture even with outsourcing the Ecats ?

  55. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You and your staff will likely chose another approach but this is my thinking on how to merge NGU technology into a PV solar park.

    If the solar panels are tied in a string and go to a string inverter, then the approach would be to use two diodes (a 60VDC, 30Amp, 0.7 VDC forward drop, < 1 milliamp reverse current, cost is less than $3USD each) and let the highest voltage leave the PV panel going to the string inverter. Typical PV voltages in STC are around 40 VDC and power is around 400-500W. Not the most efficient but simple and reliable.

    If the solar panels each go to a micro-inverter, then replace the micro-inverter with a dual input micro-inverter. The PV solar panel output goes into one input. The NGU goes into the other input. This gives maximum efficiency.

    Number of 100W NGUs – I suggest 3, outputting a total of 36VDC. This keeps the total power down, which increases component reliability, provides less power at night, when the demand is less.

    Thoughts?

  56. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  57. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    1. How many of the current NGU 100W units have you been able to successfully produce?
    2. Of those produced, how many have undergone testing?
    3. Can you ascertain a yield rate (number of units that passed testing divided by number of units produced)?

  58. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    We will start the massive manufacturing only after reaching the well known target of consolidated pre-orders. We are making prototypes for testing and now we have a series of prototypes that work with the necessary reliability; therefore we are ready to start anytime a massive manufacturing for at least 500000 units per year, besides we have already organized an outsourcing system to further increase the production.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  59. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Kuwait Solar Project – a non-government project

    “A group of energy companies are planning to build a 5-GW solar power complex in the north of Kuwait that will involve an investment of about USD 3.5 billion (EUR 3.1bn), Kuwaiti daily Al Anba said on Tuesday, citing sources familiar with the matter.

    The initiative has been submitted to the Cabinet Office and then referred to Kuwait’s minister of finance for a review, the report says. The developers are seeking state approval to build the park as a private investment project and then sell the produced electricity to the Ministry of Electricity, Water and Renewable Energy.”

    Thoughts?

  60. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for the information contained in your last two comments,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  61. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    A Saudi Arabia Application for NGU Technology

    “ACWA Power, a local utilities company, signed an agreement with Water and Electricity Holding Company (Badeel) to build the world’s largest single-site solar-power plant in Al Shuaibah, Mecca province. The solar-power facility is expected to start operations by end‑2025, with a generation capacity of 2,060 MW.”

    “Saudi Arabia seeks to add 15 GW of renewable energy capacity.”

    Suggestions:

    1. Divide the 2 GW of solar into two identical 1 GW solar farms.
    2. One equipped with NGU technology, and the other not so equipped.
    3. Monitor the output of each for some period of time, say, one year,
    4. Cost reimbursement could either be upfront or paid by the additional energy produced.

    To implement, you would need to develop a field installable kit, that rapidly facilitated integration with the existing solar panel and cabling. You might also want to set up a local network for monitoring and status reporting.

    If so implemented, that would give you 1 GW of NGU units in total.

    Thoughts?

  62. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another NGU Application – H71M-PM Hall-effect thruster

    NASA has developed an ion thruster that requires 1 kW (or less) for 15,000 hours (or more). It has a high Specific Impulse of around 1,800 sec. A perfect application for the NGU.

  63. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels,
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  64. Martyn Aubrey

    Steven Nicholes Karels

    Hello Steven,

    I agree with your vision.

    Also, it is always wise to keep enough reserve power to make a good cup of coffee!

    Best regards,
    Martyn

  65. Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    You recently published a photo of the current peaks that occur in the core of the E-Cat NGU. We see a relatively even distribution of the current peaks that remain quite stable in terms of amplitude within a certain range.
    In the trend of recent interesting questions from readers, I was wondering how the E-Cat NGU adapts to a variable load? Does the amplitude of the current peaks decrease, or does the number of peaks per unit time decrease by lengthening the intervals?
    In the hypothetical case of an extension of the intervals, does it seem likely to me that the life of the reactor core would increase proportionately?

    Kind regards,
    Koen

  66. Andrea Rossi

    Koen Vandewalle:
    Sorry, the issues you raised are confidential, apart what has been written in the paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  67. WaltC

    Dr. Rossi,

    A simple candidate for killer-application that has, so far, received limited attention would be an “E-Cat Portable Power Station”. Based on the Portable Power Stations available on Amazon, the E-Cat would have a natural superiority in that application and it should also be a good match, price-wise.

    About “Portable Power Station” (PPS) devices:
    – These are simple devices: {rechargeable batteries + inverter + power outputs} in a compact, portable package.
    – Intended primarily for Indoor/Outdoor, Camping, Emergency, Home (e.g., blackouts) and Portable Use.
    – Most PPS provide 110v AC and USB (DC) power outputs.
    – Recharge power can come from Home (AC), Car (12v) or Solar Panel(s).
    – Runtimes are typically 1 hour at the rated capacity.

    Take as an example a top-selling 300W Portable Power Station with over 8200 ratings (on AZ):
    – It costs $229 (currently) and can sustain 62W output for 4 hours. (Which equals $3.60 per 4h-sustained-W).
    – Depending on the situation, 4 hours may be vastly insufficient, but recharging is required, nonetheless.
    – A 100W E-Cat PPS could be comparably priced, with comparable output, and provide vastly superior runtime.

    Summary: A family of “E-Cat Portable Power Station” devices– 100W … 1000W– would allow stepwise access into a new market, provide customers with a low-cost entry point and offer unmatched runtimes. The unique and superior runtime could likely support a higher price-premium if required initially.

    Best Wishes,
    WaltC

  68. Andrea Rossi

    WaltC:
    Thank you foryour suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  69. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You posted “I already answered to this issue.” I believe this was in regards to my discussion of a Current Limiting Circuit.

    I agree that the NGU unit should just shut down when a demand greater than its maximum power rating is required. It makes no sense for the NGU unit to have additional circuitry or logic to accommodate demand beyond its specified performance. Such considerations should be made by the system integrator who is using the NGU units.

    This is identical to a power supply which has an over-current level, that when exceeded, it automatically shuts down the operation of the power supply. When the load is removed, the power supply will reactivate, either with a manual reset or automatically.

  70. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  71. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Martyn Aubrey,

    My vision for the NGU units is that they feed a smart inverter, similar to an all-in-one solar inverter, where the solar inputs are replaced with NGU units. In this environment, the NGU units would run at their maximum level, but no more. Any excess energy would be stored in included batteries which would handle turn on transient loads.

    If the requested demand was greater than what the overall system could supply, then gid power would supplement the battery and NGU power.

    As with all electrical systems, circuit breakers would protect the conductors from excessive current flow.

    So, in a building or industrial setting, some protection equipment will be needed to handle electrical demands greater than what the system is designed to handle. Similar to the circuit breaker opening when you plug in that last additional coffee pot.

  72. Martyn Aubrey

    Hello Steven,

    My concern about overloading the Ecat supply was not so much about individual installations, where I agree with Andrea that there would be good oversight over the total wattage of the individual devices taking power from each Ecat.

    I was thinking more about a situation where a multi-Ecat configuration supplies multiple consumers in, for example, a large building or an off-grid complex.

    Any consumer may add an extra device to their power outlets and not realise how close they could bring the higher level system to its switch-off point. This careless addition of say a kettle or a heater might trip the Ecat supply and cause a power blackout for the other users.

    As you said, a current limiting circuit breaker for each individual spur would be a good solution.

    However, it is unlikely that any of the equally rated spurs would be used at full capacity all of the time, so there would need to be a considerable reserve margin of power to meet the full usage if occasionally required.

    This would be a general power distribution matter rather than an Ecat power output matter, to avoid supply contention.

    Interesting regards,
    Martyn

  73. R.Brand

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    have i read it correctly that you will licence the ecat also to other producers?
    How much will be the license fee per 100 Watt ecat?
    Best regards
    R.Brand

  74. Andrea Rossi

    R.Brand:
    Requests of license must be addressed to
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  75. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Martyn Aubrey,

    One possible solution is to design and place a Current Limiting Circuit between the NGU unit(s) and the load. The Current limiting Circuit will limit the current being drawn from the NGU unit(s) so the NGU unit(s) do not shutdown. The output of the Current Limiting Circuit will reduce the voltage going to the load.

  76. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels,
    I already answered to this issue,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  77. Martyn Aubrey

    Dear Dr Rossi,

    You answered to Steve D that the Ecat shuts down when V*I exceeds the power rating.
    Will there be a warning indication when the output power approaches the cut-off threshold?
    Many thanks for your answer.

    Kind regards,
    Martyn Aubrey

  78. Andrea Rossi

    Martyn Aubrey:
    With the Ecat will happen exactly the same thing that would happen if you exceed the power installed in your house by your energy provider, for example connecting too many appliances at the same time; suppose you have a contract to supply a maximum power of 5 kW: this means that you can connect loads that totalize a consume of max 5 kWh/h, e.g. one 2 kW heater, one 2 kW refrigerator and additional series of appliances for a total of 1 kW of power, this way consuming a total of 5 kWh/h of energy: that’s fine so far…but if you add to the connections any further appliance, the general switch of your house will shut down all; analogically, the same would happen with the Ecat system. To fix the issue, as you surely already know, all you have to do is to disconnect some appliance to reduce the consume within the limit of 5 kWh/h, and the light will be back again. I am sure that you already experienced this solace,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  79. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I reviewed a projection that the State of Texas will need to double its baseload capacity, currently around 150 GW, within the next ten years to meet:

    1. Population growth
    2. environmental change (Texas is getting warmer)
    3. Increase in industry.

    Perhaps you should adjust your business model to include electricity production?

    Thoughts?

  80. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestions,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  81. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another eCat application – large electric cranes

    “The world’s largest land-based electric crane is here to make construction even cleaner, and the technology could revolutionize offshore wind installations.

    As detailed by Interesting Engineering, the SK6,000 ring crane was delivered to Mammoet’s engineering hub in the Netherlands in April 2023.”

    While the crane is currently powered from the “dirty” electrical grid, it could be powered by eCat technology. This would make its operation free from electrical grid outages.

    It is also likely that seaborne cranes could use eCat technology.

    Thoughts?

  82. Steve D

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    2024-04-30 Steven Nicholes Karels asks,

    2. Is there a minimum load required for the voltage to be presented? If so, what is that load? 

    You response, No.

    I read minimum load to mean minimum current, therefore it refers to a load resistance value that cannot be exceeded. The readers question suggests a threshold. The distinction between open circuit and just sufficient current to maintain eg 12 V output. To rephrase the question:

    1) Is there a maximum load resistance where the ecat will still output a voltage? 

    2)  If so, what is that load resistance, or more generally what is the minimum current?

    3) When idle for storage, is the ecat in an “off” condition?

    4) Is there eg 12V or 0V output when it is “off”?

    5) If Q4 answer is 0V, the ecat is seen to have shut down at some maximum resistance or minimum current threshold. The user will need to know this threshold for application design.

    Thank You 

  83. Andrea Rossi

    Steve D:
    The Ecat system has a constant Voltage that depends on the assembly and the specific situation; R and I depend on the integrals deriving from the first Ohm’s Law:
    R = V/I
    Obviously V*I cannot exceed the power: if it does, the Ecat shuts down.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  84. Tom Kaminski

    Steven Nicholes Karels:

    A DC to DC converter wold be fine — you just need to verify that the eCat-NGU is generating significant power with no input. The eCat-NGU could also be placed in a shielded box to eliminate any electromagnetic coupling from a hidden source.

  85. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Tom Kaminski,

    I have been watching this technology for a long time. Historically, AR has been reluctant to have direct measurements of the output of the eCat technology devices.

    My suggested change to your request to AR is to place a DC/DC converter in line so that the measurement equipment measures the output of the DC/DC converter. Maybe a 12VDC to 24VDC output with a load of 6 Ohms rated to handle more than 100W? Measure the average voltage at the load and the average current. Perhaps use analog meters?

    Thoughts?

  86. Tom Kaminski

    You have stated that you will not restart the live demonstration of the eCat-NGU, but I hope that you would reconsider that decision. I would feel more comfortable telling others about your invention if I saw a demonstration that had clear measurements with common equipment. A demonstration that had an eCat-NGU, with output terminals connected to a mechanical panel meter measuring voltage, connected to a resistive load through a mechanical panel meter measuring current, and a two or more mechanical (or mercury/alcohol glass) thermometers measuring the temperature of the load and room temperature would work. If you demonstrated the 100 Watt eCat-NGU, the temperature rise would be very apparent, demonstrating power flow to the load independent of the voltage times current electrical power measurement.

    Everything associated with the measurements could be certified by experts beforehand. It could be connected to the eCat-NGU at your site. Though there will still be skeptics claiming the demonstration is fake, it would make many of us who have been following the eCat technology evolution more comfortable.

  87. Andrea Rossi

    Tom Kaminski:
    Thank you for your opinion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  88. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    A few questions on the NGU 100W module.

    1. Does the NGU 100W module present its voltage (e.g. 12 VDC) all the time, excluding times when an over current condition is occurring?
    2. Is there a minimum load required for the voltage to be presented? If so, what is that load?
    3. What happens as the load causes the NGU 100W unit to approach, meet, and then exceed the maximum current draw? Does the output voltage decrease after the point of maximum current draw?

    I am trying to understand how the NGU 100W module (in series with other identical units) will respond when MPPT occurs in a solar inverter where the PV input is replaced by a series connections of NGU 100W units.

  89. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    1- yes
    2- no
    3- the Ecat shuts down
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  90. Gavino Mamia

    Doctor Rossi
    Many affordable Chinese electric vehicle models are expected to arrive in Europe soon.
    The Italian state has provided incentives for the purchase of electric vehicles.
    Please speed up the test to prevent many from making a wrong purchase.
    Good work

  91. Andrea Rossi

    Gavino Mamia:
    You are right,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  92. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another application for NGU technology

    Oxygen production for use at hospitals.

    “Medical oxygen is a regulated commodity that must be at least 82% pure, free from any contamination, and generated by an oil-free compressor. Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It changes from gas to liquid at a temperature of −182.96°C. The liquid oxygen can be solidified or frozen at a temperature of −218°C.”

    4 MJ of energy is needed to produce 1 kg of liquid oxygen.

    1 kg of liquid oxygen will generate 720 liters of medical oxygen.

    Assume a hospital with 1,000 beds, each requiring 5 liters per minute of medical oxygen = 5,000 liter per minute.

    energy needed per minute = 4 MJ * 5,000 liters per minute * 1kg/720 liters = ~ 28 MJ / minute

    power needed = 28 MJ /60 sec = ~ 0.5 MW.

    The hospital would not need to rely on external transportation of liquid oxygen which might fail when storms are present.

    Thoughts?

  93. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  94. Roland

    Dr Rossi,
    the paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    has received 1380 reccomendations as of today, mostly from physicists and researchers of the matter: this is a strong peer reviewing support, even more impressive considering its revolutionary context.
    Best Regards,
    Roland

  95. Andrea Rossi

    Roland:
    Thank you for your kind attention to the work of our Team,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  96. Iggy Dalrymple

    Dear Dr Rossi,
    Does your NGU water heater require an inverter
    Best Regards,
    Iggy

  97. Andrea Rossi

    Iggy Dalrymple:
    Depends on the specific situations,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  98. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You posted “The Ecat SKLep was only a heat generator, while the Ecat SKLep NGU generates electricity and, consequently, also heat, albeit the theoretical operational bases are the same.”

    If my memory serves me correctly, the Ecat SKLep was an electricity producer (the last two letters of SKLep). Some undefined problems occurred with the SKLep design and you went to the NGU (“Never Give Up”) version. The SKLep was originally designed to go into the EV demonstration.

    As I recall, the NGU had some additional components added to improve reliability.

    Am I mistaken?

  99. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    You are right: in the comment of Sergio there was a typo, writing SKLep instead of SKL, and in my answer I erroneously repeated his typo: my mistake. After this comment of yours I corrected both the typos,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  100. Andrea Rossi

    Quinto:
    Thank you for the links,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  101. Jan Srajer

    Mr. Rossi
    1. Is the Ecat SKLed safe against falling from 1m
    2. Will Ecat SKLed still work at 9V?
    3. Is the Ecat SKLed rain resistant?
    4. Is the Ecat SKLed resistant to frequent switching on and off
    Warm regards

  102. Andrea Rossi

    Jan Srajer:
    As soon as we will decide the date,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  103. Prof

    Dr Rossi,
    Today the paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    reached 129000 total readings,, more than the 99.9% of 1.5 million papers published on Researchgate.
    And counting…
    Best
    Prof

  104. Andrea Rossi

    Prof:
    Thank you for the update,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  105. Jan Šrajer

    Mr.Rossi
    How far in advance will you announce the EV test?

    All the best J.Š.

  106. ernest dallafior

    One Question. Is your latest device running in SSM mode?

  107. Andrea Rossi

    Ernest Dallafior:
    Yes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  108. Sergio

    Dr Rossi:
    Which is basically the difference between the Ecat SKLep you introduced in the years 2018-2019 and the new version Ecat SKL NGU ?
    Best,
    Sergio

  109. Andrea Rossi

    Sergio:
    The Ecat SKLep was only a heat generator, while the Ecat SKLep NGU generateselectricity and, consequently, also heat, albeit the theoretical operational bases are the same.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  110. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Will all NGU units have a remotely activated control line input to turn off the NGU? Or is it a special order option?

  111. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    That could be an optional,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  112. Steve D

    Dear Andrea Rossi

    A few clarifications if you don’t mind.

    To provide the drive characteristic to the reactor core for correct operation, this the role of 

    1a) the controller

    1b) AI

    1c) something else

    To maintain a constant power output but within operational limits, this is the role of

    2a) the controller

    2b) AI

    2c) something else

    Thank you

  113. Andrea Rossi

    Steve D:
    1- the control system, that can also be considered an AI
    2- same as in 1
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  114. Peter

    Dr Rossi,
    The paper in
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    has obtained 1384 reccomendations, most of which made by physicists, researchers: if we consider the fact that the same paper reached, as of today, 128871 total readings, it appears to be among the most peer reviewed paper of its cathegory.
    All the best,
    Peter

  115. Andrea Rossi

    Peter:
    True,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  116. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Point Design for an eCat-powered residential home

    My residence is a 4 bedroom, two-story home. The measured average electrical power requirements range from 1.0 kW (winter time) to 2.5 kW (summer time). I use central air-conditioning during the summer time and a natural gas furnace and fireplace during the winter time. The water heater uses natural gas.

    I have a Tesla Wall Charger which, when charging, draws 32Amps at 240VAC, or about 7.7 kW. The air-conditioning unit draws about 3 kW when it is running. Although the average demand is between 1 and 2.5 kW, I will need to provide up to 11 kW of electrical power.

    My objective is to not draw power from the electrical grid, but to have it available, if I need it.

    I have selected, for the point design, an EG4 6000XP off-grid hybrid inverter, coupled with an EG4 Wall Mount indoor battery. Two such combinations will be used, working in parallel operation.

    Each EG4 6000XP is capable for supplying split-phase 120/240VAC power of up to 6,000 W continuously, with short term capacity of 12,000 W. The two units in parallel will provide 12 kW continuously, if needed.

    Each 600XP will be coupled with a 280AH, 51.2V battery system, having a capacity of up to 14.3 kW-hrs of energy. With two such systems, the total energy storage will be 28.6 kW-hrs. Assuming the power needed during a grid failure will be 1.0 kW, the battery power will be sufficient for about 12 – 14 hours.

    I propose to use eCat technology in lieu of Solar Panels. The Ecat units will provide power to the 6000XP units though the PV input. The acceptable input range for the 6000XP PV is between 120 VDC and 385 VDC, and a maximum allowed current of 17 Amps.

    I cannot use the NGU 3kW units as its output is between 12 VDC and 110 VDC, which would make their current well over the 17 Amp 6000XP limitation. So, I plan to use a number of NGO 100W units, tied in series. I plan to use 18 100W units which would produce 1.8 kW at 216 VDC. One such string would feed each of the two 6000XP Hybrid Inverters. Each NGU string would produce a current of 8.33 Amps.

    The excess power would be used to charge the batteries. During times when the air-conditioning system was active and my Tesla was being charged, the NGU units will not produce enough power. So, the additional power would be drawn from the two batteries.

    6000XP health may be monitored on a phone app through the wiFi dongle supplied with each 6000XP unit.

    Grid power would be taken from the main panel with two appropriately sized two-phase circuit breakers. The output AC from each 6000XP will be wired to a combiner box. Basically, a subpanel box with a two-phase circuit breaker for each 6000XP output. The combined power from the combiner box will be wired to a distribution box which will power the house.

    The 6000XP will not send power back toward the electrical grid so there are not anti-islanding problems.

    Thoughts?

  117. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestions,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  118. Roberto

    @Jorge Almeida:
    Kudos to your comment !
    Best
    Roberto

  119. Jorge Almeida

    Dr Rossi,
    The lecture of the paragraphs 5 and 6 of the paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    watching the recent photos of the R&D with the Ecat NGU is really exciting,
    All the best,
    Jorge Almeida

  120. Andrea Rossi

    Jorge Almeida:
    Thank you for your attention to the work of our Team,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  121. Koen Vandewalle

    @Wilfried

    Dear Wilfried,

    If I remember correctly, one of the technicians who works or worked for Andrea Rossi once said something about strange forces they saw occurring during their experiments. A kind of momentum indeed.

    Personally, I no longer dare to count on experiencing a public application of E-Cat technology in this lifetime. If we look at the terrible things that are happening in various places in the world today and at the way in which society is organized among large populations, I fear that we will never be civilized enough to deal with inexhaustible energy sources and space travel.

    The solutions we come up with for the problems of the past now seem to cause bigger problems for the future. It was long believed that economic growth would outpace this discrepancy, but even that seems increasingly illusory.

    If I were the designer of the universe, I would ensure that the current human species would never be able to reach other worlds or civilizations. Who of all the people born after the Second World War would have ever believed that 155mm artillery shells would still become big business in 2024?

    What I find most difficult to explain is Andrea Rossi’s persistence. My hope is that the knowledge is never lost, or that the technology does not end up in a forgotten archive somewhere in someone’s possession. Considering the previous two paragraphs, I have no confidence in “investors” and in the functioning of a so-called free market. If I were the devil, I would invent money.

    Kind regards,
    Koen

  122. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You posted “It seems quite dangerous to me” in response to my motorized paraglider suggestion about “crossing the Atlantic”.

    The example was in jest. The more likely scenario would be a cross-country flight, or flying the entire coastline to show endurance but being close enough to land to safely terminate the flight if, for example, the motor failed.

    Licensed pilots can legally go up to 18,000 feet AMSL. So, a few thousand feet (or less) would allow enough descent time to safely land the vehicle.

  123. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Definitely too dangerous,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  124. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    There is interesting photo you posted on Twitter recently.(https://twitter.com/LeonardoCorpor3/status/1782426476773576999, https://e-catworld.com/2024/04/24/testing-of-e-cat-core-shown-in-new-photo/)

    a) Can you explain what is the large grey box located on the desktop?
    b) Is the E-Cat NGU core the same as the core of the previous E-Cat SKLep?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  125. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Thank you for the links.
    a) various electronic circuits to verify the theoretical system explained in

    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions

    b) yes
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  126. Wilfried

    @ Koen Vandewalle

    If the E-Cat really works, there must also be the opposite principle, an infinite sink through which energy can be pumped into “space”. Everything conforms to the conservation of energy.
    I imagine that the E-Cat causes a minimal, local distortion of space, at the point where the energy is “gained” until the point where the energy flows back into “space”. With the E-Cat, this is presumably almost at the same point in space.
    If two E-Cats could now be synchronized at plasma level, one E-Cat could serve as a source and another E-Cat as a sink. Electrons would be generated in one E-Cat and flow to the other E-Cat via a line. There would have to be a force of motion against the flow of electrons, as the return flow across the space is material-free.

    Best Regards
    Wilfried

  127. Harry

    Dr Rossi,
    I have just viewed the photo of the actual internal Ecat NGU reactor (development). It can seen this is visually similar the the 2017 reactor. Is this due to a linear development guided by the principles found in the paper found at: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions

    Thanks,
    Harry. R

  128. Andrea Rossi

    Harry:
    You are correct: all the tests that followed confirmed the validity of the theoretical structure explained in the paper of Researchgate you cited,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  129. Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Is the standard SKLep unit a DC input/DC output only, with additional components available for AC input and/or AC Output? Such as AC to DC wall adapters or power supplies and a DC to AC inverter separate from the standard SKLep unit?

  130. Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    It seems quite dangerous to me,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  131. Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Has the power density of the E-Cat increased from 10 to 100 watt?
    Is the price of the 100 Watt E-Cat 10 times more than the 10 Watt E-Cat?
    I understand that you are a hard working inventor. Always willing to improve the E-Cat.
    But when you have time, you can always look at the historical test of John Bedini’s
    Free Energy Motor:

    http://gratisenergi.se/bedini.htm

    Best Wishes, Hermes

  132. Andrea Rossi

    Hermes Atar Trismegistus:
    1- no
    2- yes
    Thank you for the link,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  133. Koen Vandewalle

    @Wilfried 20 April 10:33AM

    Dear Wilfried,

    Oddly enough, Andrea Rossi seems not to respond to your question, although you describe an extremely interesting phenomenon. Completely within the context of this propellant-free propulsion, about thirty years ago, I conducted a little experiment based on my then high school knowledge of physics, particularly the Lorentz force. This Lorentz force occurs in conductors when current flows through them while they are in a magnetic field. Electric motors operate on this principle.

    The idea was to create propulsion by using air as a conductor via an electric arc, and to generate this arc in the magnetic field of a ferrite magnet.

    It didn’t work…

    Until I replaced the transformer with a piezo igniter from a lighter. Then I observed a perceptible force at the moment of igniting the electric arc. However, the force was so slight that I thought the motion was caused by my breath blowing against the setup. To eliminate this, I placed it in a glass jar, which I also tried to evacuate as much air from as possible. The idea was to have as little air as possible so that the plasma arc would extinguish as quickly as possible, allowing a new one to be “ignited” shortly thereafter.

    The remarkable phenomenon is that the pendulum setup did not move in the direction of the Lorentz force I expected, but rather moved in the direction of the jumping electrons during the ignition of the electric arc.

    There was no internet back then, and with only paper encyclopedias and books from the library, I couldn’t make much progress. I threw away the setup. I also didn’t have a camera.

    So, as far as I’m concerned, the phenomenon you refer to may have some connection to the E-CAT in the sense that it could also be related to high dV/dt phenomena.

    Always interested in new ideas and abnormal phenomena.

    Best regards,
    Koen

  134. Steven Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another eCat application – Powered paragliding

    Powered paragliding, also known as paramotoring or PPG, is a form of ultralight aviation where the pilot wears a back-pack motor (a paramotor) which provides enough thrust to take off using a paraglider. The paraglider itself has no rigid structure and the pilot is suspended by lines. The pilot is clipped into a harness and the motor is a backpack unit with propeller to give thrust allowing you to climb and fly level at your own will.

    A powered paraglider, also known as paramotoring or PPG, can achieve speeds of around 25 to 35 miles per hour (40 to 56 kilometers per hour). The actual speed depends on factors such as wind conditions, the weight of the pilot, and the specific paramotor equipment being used. It’s a thrilling way to experience flight while enjoying the freedom of the open sky!

    They Can go up to 18,000 feet above mean sea level (MSL) but most pilots fly between grass height and about 2,000 feet above ground level. Weighs between 45 and 90 pounds empty (no fuel). Carries 2 to 5 gallons (13 to 35 pounds) and burns between 0.5 to 1.3 U.S. gallon per hour.

    Most extra-large paragliders can support up to 120kg (265 pounds) of weight for a single paraglider, including pilot & equipment. For heavier weights, a tandem paraglider can be used as they can support a weight of up to 240kg (529 pounds) maximum including pilot, passenger, and equipment.

    Maybe the first person to cross the Atlantic in a Powered paraglider?

  135. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another eCat technology application – an electric motorcycle.

    “The energy consumption of the electric motorcycle is 35.96 km/kWh or 2.8 kW h/100 km. The energy consumption of the gasoline motorcycle is 41.16 km/L or 2.43 L/100 km (4.38 km/kWh or 22.84 kW h/100 km). The electric motorcycle consumed approximately eight times lower energy than the gasoline motorcycle.”

    “Motorcycle fuel tanks can have a capacity between 2 to 10 gallons.”

    The likely average speed for a long-distance motorcycle is 120 kph. So, 2.8 kW-hr/ 100 km * 120 km/hr = 3.36 kW.

    Adding a small rechargeable battery for climbing hills, etc. and taking times out for eating, etc., the 3 kW NGU unit would nicely fit this application.

    Note: the longest distance per day that I know of is 1,000 km per day.

  136. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  137. Mels M.

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    i read that you can produce 500,000 ecat 100W in a year and your aim is 1 million pre-orders.
    If i order now, then i have to wait full TWO years after the production started (maybe more if people in the queue before me enlarge their pre-orders ?
    Or can i hope that you will increase the production significant?
    Warm regards
    Mels M.

  138. Andrea Rossi

    Mels M.:
    This is a good question.
    We have organized the outsourcing system to increase the production as much as necessary to deliver all the Ecat pre-ordered within 6/10 months. At the most.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  139. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Another possible application for eCat Technology – power source for Spacex Starship Tankers

    Spacex has a plan of launching multiple propellant tankers orbiting in Near Earth Orbit. They would be used as propellant fueling stations to support Starships before the refueled Starship goes to the Moon or to Mars. These tankers would be periodically refilled by Starships launched from Earth. A major issue is propellant loss due to boil off. This is a simplistic analysis towards addressing that issue.

    The Starship has the dimensions of a diameter of 9 meters and an approximate length of 50 meters. The Starship tankers will not have reentry thermal shielding as once they achieve orbit, they stay there. So, a long duration electrical power source is needed.

    Satellites in Earth orbit experience temperature ranges from -150C to +150C. The temperature range varies as approximately 1/2 of the time the satellite is in direct sunlight and the other 1/2 time it is in the Earth’s shadow.

    The propellant in Starship is liquid methane and liquid oxygen. The liquid methane is chilled to -180 °C, while the liquid oxygen is chilled to -207 °C.

    Some sort of power system will be needed within the Starship tanker to keep the propellants at their desired temperatures.

    First Order Heat Transfer Analysis

    Model the Starship as a rectangular panel of 9 meters by 50 meters, facing the Sun.

    in Near Earth Orbit, solar intensity is 1,369 W/meter squared.

    Stainless Steel, in the thermal wavelengths, has a reflectivity of approximately 88%.

    So, in direct sunlight, the power being received by the Starship exterior is about 73.4 kW.

    With 1/2 of the time spent in the Earth’s shadow, the effective average thermal load will be 36.7 kW. Over 24 hours, the total energy will be about 880 kW-hrs.

    The ship’s insulation will slow the heat transfer, but it will not stop the heat transfer. It is likely that vacuum insulation will be used to decrease the thermal conductivity to a value of 2 W/(m/K).

    If we assume some sort of cryogenic system will be in use, especially while the Starship tanker is in the Earth’s shadow, and an assumed efficiency of 10%, then the electrical power requirement will be around 2.2 MW for cooling in over 4 hours.

    It is likely that two separate cryogenic cooling systems will be required, but the total power should be around 3 MW (allowing for environmental conditioning of the NGU unit and other control equipment) as the cooling process may only be accomplished efficiently while in the Earth’s shadow and not while either being refueled or refueling another Starship. So, the cooling should be done quickly, so as to not interfere with the refueling mission.

    Alternatively, the Starship tanker could surround the propellant tanks in liquid nitrogen and then use a single cryogenic cooling system would cool only the nitrogen.

    Another alternative would be to keep the orientation of the tanker pointed at the Sun to minimize thermal energy.

    Tanker orientation could be accomplished by using a very small amount of the propellant to control attitude and/or rotation.

    The proposed system would pump the boil-off from each propellant tank, compress it (thus heating it up), radiating the excess heat into space, and then cooling it down to the desired temperature by expansion.

    Problems such as propellant transfer, separation of liquid and gaseous propellants, are left to Spacex.

    Perhaps the cryogenic cooling is only done while the tanker is rotating to induce an artificial gravity to facilitate liquid/gas separation and transfer?

    Thoughts?

  140. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  141. Gavino Mamia

    Caro Dott. Rossi
    Il suo prototipo di riscaldatore da 3KW è bellissimo, ma mi ricorda la mia infanzia quando c’era il caminetto in cucina e la vita si trascorreva lì tutto il giorno, perché tutte le altre stanze erano freddissime.
    Mi fa pensare alla caldaia a Gas che possiedo e tutto l’impianto di tubi e radiatori necessari per portare il calore in tutto l’appartamento.
    Mi fa pensare alle stufe a pellet che usano un sistema di ventilazione per cercare di scaldare più possibile lontano dalla fonte di calore, oppure a quelle più costose e complicate Idro Pellet.
    Col suo Ecat che produce energia elettrica basterebbero delle stufe elettriche da poche decine di euro messe nelle varie stanze per riscaldare un appartamento intero.
    Chi vuole spendere di più userà dei climatizzatori, col vantaggio di avere anche aria fresca in estate.
    Quindi trovo ottimo il suo riscaldatore ma solo come test per l’Ecat, oppure per una demo pubblica.
    Consiglio quindi di concentrarsi solo sulla produzione di corrente elettrica.
    E sulle prossime demo, al più presto possibile ovviamente.
    Buon lavoro
    TRANSLATE
    His prototype 3KW stove is beautiful, but it reminds me of my childhood when there was a fireplace in the kitchen and we spent our lives there all day, because all the other rooms were very cold.
    It makes me think of the gas boiler I own and the entire system of pipes and radiators needed to bring heat throughout the apartment.
    It makes me think of pellet stoves that use a ventilation system to try to heat as far as possible from the heat source, or of the more expensive and complicated Hydro Pellet ones.
    With its Ecat that produces electricity, electric heaters costing a few tens of euros positioned in the various rooms would be enough to heat an entire apartment.
    Those who want to spend more will use air conditioners, with the advantage of having fresh air even in summer.
    So I find its heating excellent but only as a test for the Ecat, or for a public demo.
    I therefore recommend focusing only on electricity production.
    And to the next demos, as soon as possible obviously.

  142. Andrea Rossi

    Gavino Mamia:
    You are right,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  143. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You posted that you wanted me to redo my math on the new heater.

    “Generally, space heaters use 1,500 watts (W) of electricity, depending on the model. Most space heaters use about 15 amps and connect to a 120-volt outlet.”

    So, to be competitive, we are likely looking at a 1.5kW space heater application. With a stated price of $2.50USD per Watt for eCat technology, the price of the new space heater will be $3,750 USD.

    Space heaters are used an average of 8 hours per day, depending on the location and user needs.

    If we assume an average cost of electricity to be $0.20 USD per kW-hr, then the breakeven time, in terms of the cost of electricity savings, will be 4.3 years.

    Current space heaters cost around $100 USD.

    Most current space heaters have temperature controls so that they turn off when the room reaches the desired temperature. For example, if the average duty cycle is 50% on, then the 4.3 years will double to 8.6 years.

    My point being that eCat technology is best served when the use is 100% of the time. Space heater, I suggest, are not the ideal platform for eCat technology.

  144. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  145. Todd Burkett

    Hello from the beautiful island of Utila Honduras, I have been following you for more than 20 years I think. I wanted to know if you have ever reached out to Elon Musk? There is great demand for intense energy supply for AI computing, and also various things, of course. I have had a variety of orders since the first day you made that available and I’m looking forward to the day I can get the devices I’m in the mist of needing to install either solar power, which is quite expensive or in the ultimate hopes that your device is ready within the next 6 months for shipment I’m truly hoping it would be within six months as it would save me a great deal of money over solar power. I would still need to purchase the charge controllers, of course, but they are the least expensive part of the solar systems these days. also, it would change the lives for people in places like this electricity cost $.57 per kilowatt here!

  146. Andrea Rossi

    Todd Burkett:
    Thank you for your high fidelity !
    When we will be ready to deliver we will contact you.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  147. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    The following was posted on another site regarding the NGU Heater.

    “a prototype heater we have under development in our lab. This heater is powered by the E-Cat NGU, no connection to the grid is needed.”

    Questions:
    1. Is there a 3 kW eCat NGU unit inside the heater?
    2. Or is this a resistive load for an external NGU unit?
    3. Is the unit shown on its side — the fins are mounted horizontally when they should be vertical for convection heat transfer.
    4. Where is the on/off switch, the temperature selection, the temperature display, and the necessary safety equipment to turn off the power?
    5. What are the dimensions of this “cube”. It appears to be about 40 cm on a side.
    6. Given a current price of $2.50USD per Watt for eCat technology and the average space heater usage is less than 8 hours per day, it seems it would take a very long time to pay for itself in electricity savings. Comments?

  148. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    1. no
    2. no
    3. yes, but this is not a product, but a prototype made along our spedific R&D and eventual measurements
    4. not shown
    5. 30 cm/side
    6. please redo your math
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  149. Ron Stringer

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    The new heater is very interesting, and will make a great demonstration device. However, there are a lot of manufacturers who could make this, I’m not sure why you would want to. You will create a self-charging EV battery pack for a demonstration, but I imagine it would be better to let EV manufacturers design and build their own, rather than manufacture them yourself. You have had a huge number of very good ideas for products which would incorporate E-Cats presented on the blog, you can’t build them all!
    You have a plan, obviously, I am just struggling with what seems to be a sidetrack. It is going to be a huge effort to just build enough E-Cat units to keep up with demand once they are introduced. Every product that uses electricity could potentially use an E-Cat, and every producer will want to design products that will incorporate them. It seems to me that your currently planned production of 100MW per year (1 million units of 100W) is just the barest start!
    Maybe I misunderstand your manufacturing strategy.
    1. Do you really intend to have Leonardo Corp. manufacture specific products like this, in addition to the E-Cat in its various forms?
    2. Is this not a distraction from your main effort, which is to bring the E-Cat to market?
    3. Or is this something you will do with a manufacturing partner?
    All the best,
    Ron Stringer

  150. Z.Roeden

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    thanks to your new heater you can save heating costs at your office.
    But is it possible to connect such a heater with 230V-2000Watt for just 30€:
    https://www.amazon.de/s?k=ölradiator&i=diy&crid=2HL300K7HO66K&sprefix=ölradiator%2Cdiy%2C72&ref=nb_sb_noss_1
    directly to an ecat 3KW ?
    Best regards
    Z.Roeden

  151. Andrea Rossi

    Z.Roeden:
    Any heater can be powered by the Ecat,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  152. Jan Srajer

    Is the life time of the Ecat SKLed 100 000 hours independently from the luminous flow ?
    Warm Regards,
    Jan Srajer

  153. Andrea Rossi

    Jan Srajer:
    Actually, it is a heater; this said, an electric cooler can certainly be powered by an Ecat,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  154. Jan Šrajer

    Mr.Rossi
    I see an E-cat NGU cooler in the picture. I wonder what the temperature of those coolers is.
    All the best J.Š

  155. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    When asked about the voltage output of the 3kW NGU units you posted:
    “from 12 through 110, but the Voltage can be modified with step up/down”

    1. Is the step up/down converter separate from the 3kW NGU unit — user provided or is it part of the 3kW unit?
    2. If the output voltage was 12VDC, you would have a current of 250 Amperes. Can your cabling accommodate that current?
    3. If the output voltage was 110VDC, you would have a current of about 27.3 Amperes. Can you cabling accommodate that current?

    Please clarify. It would seem that such a low output voltage for a 3kW unit would produce a very high current. If true, I would expect to see battery type of cabling.

  156. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    1. it is not part of the unit, because its characteristics will depend on the specific situations. We will be able to supply it as an optional upon request of the Customer
    2. same as in 1
    3. same as in 1
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  157. Maico

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    Thanks again for keeping us updated on the evolution of your products.

    the publication of this photo

    https://x.com/LeonardoCorpor3/status/1781264841455378725

    takes us inside “his laboratories” and indirectly makes us understand the “immense work” that he and her team are doing to bring to the market, in the shortest possible time, his wonderful discovery which sees in Ecat NGU “its greatest expression” 😉

    I notice that lately he’s been making us “income”
    more and more often in “His World” and at the same time announces, indirectly, new demonstrations which, for us who follow his, are the culmination of his and her team’s sacrifices to achieve the objectives he has set herself and which we hope he will achieve as soon as possible.

    And now the question:

    The publication of these photos, the announcement of new demos and new prototypes, makes me think that 2024 could be the “turning point” year….. 😉

    I think so 🙂

    the conditions are all there!!!

    Do you believe this too?

    regards

    Maico

  158. Andrea Rossi

    Maico:
    Yes, I believe this too,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  159. Gavino Mamia

    Dott. Rossi
    the prototype of the heater posted on Twitter is beautiful.
    But why all those cables?

  160. Andrea Rossi

    Gavino Mamia:
    These are prototypes for R&D in our laboratories; there are many cables for measurements, comparative analysis, etc. Surely the eventual products will not have all these items and issues.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  161. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    1. Currently how many 3kW units have your constructed and/or tested?
    2. What range of output voltages are supported – 100VDC to 1,000VDC?

  162. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    1. Ten
    2. from 12 through 110, but the Voltage can be modified with step up/down
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  163. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Today on X you posted an interesting photo of a prototype NGU heater: https://twitter.com/LeonardoCorpor3, https://e-catworld.com/2024/04/19/leonardo-corp-publishes-photo-of-a-e-cat-ngu-heater/)

    Some questions if you don’t mind:

    a) Are there resistors inside the box?
    b) How far advanced are you with the development of this product?
    c) What is the power rating of this heater?
    d) Is this prototype running in complete SSM mode at the moment (no connection to an outside power source)?
    d) Do you plan to sell NGU heaters as separate products?
    e) Do you plan to demonstrate this heater this year?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  164. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Thank you for the links and for your questions.
    Answers:
    a- yes
    b- enough
    c- 3 kW
    d- yes
    e- yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  165. Julia

    Is there any woman among the principals of your team ?

  166. Andrea Rossi

    Julia:
    Yes, of course,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  167. Maico

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    It’s been a while since I wrote on your blog.
    I follow daily the answers and information that he provides to his “readers” about the development and planning of demonstrations of his “splendid Creature” ;): the Ecat NGU.

    This time I’m not going to ask any questions, but I wanted to openly thank you for what you published on “X”:

    https://x.com/LeonardoCorpor3/status/1780606138913841504

    it’s nice to see, even if with “minimal details”, some aspects of his many years of work :).

    Part of his “instrumental surveys”, of the developments and evolutions that he has managed to achieve over these years.
    He managed to “transform” a “phenomenon” that she discovered several years ago, theoretically not very exploitable at the time, but with considerable potential, in something that probably, starting from this year, will be able to “completely” revolutionize the “energy sector” on a global level.

    I thank you in advance for all this, with the hope that the next demonstrations will allow you to reach the much desired objective on which you based your certainly well-thought-out “industrial plan” (reaching one million pre-orders), thus allowing the start of mass production.

    For whatever it is worth, I consider your industrial strategy absolutely “shareable” and perfect for maintaining control, in the medium to long term, of what you discovered ;). Allowing it to start, with the right guarantees, a “sustainable” production line, with the right economies of scale and certainly revolutionary.

    Regards Maico

  168. Andrea Rossi

    Maico:
    I agree.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  169. Bob Belovich

    Andrea

    Thank you for the posting the photo on twitter. The photo shows graphically what your team has been up against to bring a product to market.

    1. Is the ecat skl ngu presently safety certified for marine use?

    2. Is the ecat skl ngu presently safety certified for aerospace use?

    3. Is the ecat skl ngu presently safety certified for any kind of mobile use

    Thanks

    Bob Belovich

  170. Andrea Rossi

    Bob Belovich:
    1. no
    2. no
    3. yes, EV
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  171. Klas

    @König,
    I guess a grid connection could also be valuable in the future while the general infrastructure develops to accommodate E-Cat Power.
    While users set up constant decentralized E-Cat power production, the grid can be used for exporting the
    the power you do not use, peak load supply, and power backup during planned or unplanned E-Cat Power outages.

    Best regards
    Klas

  172. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Ben König,

    I agree with you totally. In the future, there will be something different than our current electrical grid. That is why I suggested an off-grid inverter. It can accept power from the electrical grid but does not supply power back into the electrical grid.

    The issue is the transition from our present electrical grid to a future one. How to get to the future? I would suggest that, like most things, cost will be a factor. The current eCat price, as I understand it, is $2.50USD per Watt. If that is the correct price, then most residential homes will go with an average energy consumption design, only drawing power from the expensive electrical grid as needed.

  173. Prof

    Dr Rossi,
    Here are the stats of your publications I found today on
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Total Readings: 140000 ( more than 99% of 1.5 millions of single authors publications on Researchgate )
    Recommendations: 10956
    Research Interest Score: 2825
    Most Readings by Cathegories: Electronic Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Physics
    Most Readings by Seniority: Professors, PhD Students, Researchers, Seniors
    Most Readings by Geographic Areas: USA, Europe
    And counting…
    Cheers,
    Prof

  174. Andrea Rossi

    Gavino Mamia and Gregory Daigle:
    The date is correct, the photo has not made public so far. That is the form of the current upon which we are working since the year 2018. Now we are able to turn it into usable forms, which has been the result of 5 years of work. We thought it could be interesting.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  175. Dr. Rossi,

    I just saw your posting on X showing the current form inside the reactor of the E-Cat. One question… the date in the lower right corner of the scope’s display is Sept. 09, 2018 00:19.

    Is that the date of the reading being taken? The manual for the scope says you can use the Set Date and Time menu to set the clock date and time. The oscilloscope displays this information…

    Was this image taken in 2018?

    Warm regards,
    Greg

  176. Gavino Mamia

    Dott. Rossi
    a photo was posted on Twitter showing the current inside the ecat, but the instrument shows the date September 2018
    is a mistake?

  177. Ben König

    @Karels
    In the future there will be no need for a grid. Maybe not even a need for household power grids.
    In germany we have to pay 10 ct/kwh plus 19% tax, just for the use of the grid. No, if it is possible then everyone will get rid of the grid.
    Maybe in your country it is cheaper, but it is nevertheless a waste of money.
    Best regards
    B.König

  178. Louis Chevalier

    Dr Rossi,
    You published many papers on Researchgate; to help us to save time, can you suggest the pages that can shortly offer a synthesis of the theory at the base of the Ecat ?
    Best,
    Louis

  179. Andrea Rossi

    Louis Chevalier:
    Please go to
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    and read the paragraphs 5, 6, 7
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  180. Steven Nicholes Karels

    There are questions of whether the US electrical infrastructure can handle complete conversion to electrical power vehicles.

    FACTS

    The number of housing units in the United States has been growing year-on-year and in 2022, there were approximately 144 million homes.

    The average U.S. household consumes about 10,500 kilowatthours (kWh) of electricity per year. This would be an average daily consumption of approximately 30 kWh.

    Although Americans drive an average of 14,263 miles per year, insurance companies generally consider driving 10,000 miles a year or less to be low mileage. The daily average (assumes 250 days per year of driving) is 57 miles.

    At a driving efficiency of 0.23 kWh/mile, the average daily energy use of an EV is about 13 kWh.

    The average EV battery system has a capacity of around 40kWh, but some cars now have up to a 100 kWh capacity.

    Home battery storage capacities are pretty varied, but the average home battery capacity is likely going to be somewhere between 10 kWh and 15 kWh.

    Can you use your Tesla car battery to power your house?
    Yes, you will need a bidirectional EV charger, because ordinary EV chargers cannot power your home or feed electricity back to the grid. Bidirectional chargers function more like inverters than standard EV chargers, meaning they can convert AC to DC while charging, and reverse this when discharging your EV’s battery.

    SOLUTION

    If every residential home had eCat NGU technology of enough capacity to cover the average electrical energy consumption of 30 kWh per day, which equals about 1.25 kW, and had an off-grid inverter system, this would free up 144 million times 1.25 kW or 180 million kW of electrical power from the existing grid.

    While this would meet the average power needs of a residential home, it would not handle peak needs nor the charging energy of one or more Evs being charged daily at the residential home.

    Peak electrical power would be required for heating and cooling needs. A supplemental battery system could support the additional power needs during peak times.

    The needs for EV charging would require additional eCat NGU capacity of about 0.6 kW of power.

    So, assume the eCat NGU residential unit would supply 2 kW. At current cost of $2.50USD per Watt, the NGU would cost about $5,000USD.

    A residential battery system might be 10 to 15 kWh in size. Although the residential battery system’s capacity could be reduced or eliminated if Powersahare was implemented to use a portion of the EV battery capacity to provide power to the residential inverter system.

    Thoughts?

  181. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Ben König,

    I think that the largest market will be where constant, continuous power is required. Water heaters and heating do not have a constant demand — they go on and off. I suggest that the electrical grid Baseload power generation is the most natural fit for eCat NGU technology. Other natural applications are industrial furnaces, where the need for energy is continuous — 24/7, such as in steel or aluminum plants.

    If the eCat NGU supplementation of solar panel can provide constant, maximum power, 24/7, then that is another possible application.

    Consequently, I do not believe using eCat NGU technology for Electric Vehicles (EVs) is a cost-effective solution. I have posted before that eCat NGU technology might have an EV application for small slow charging systems in dense urban environments, where parking is at a premium, and there are insufficient EV charging stations available. 
    Thoughts?

  182. Ben König

    @kaminski
    The biggest market for Leonardo will be heating and hot water heater, by far.
    B.König

  183. Tom Kaminski

    There are a number of markets where wireless power sources could make a big impact. EV Autos are a big one – you have already identified this as a significant market. There are many smaller markets where the cost of penetration is small and the technical hurdles to overcome are small as well. Here are my thoughts on potential markets.

    Home Security Cameras: 2021 estimated market size of $8.1 Billion to grow to $21 Billion by 2030. Often the cost of installation is large than the cost of the equipment. With WiFi coinnections and a wireless power source, installation becomes inexpensive.

    Trail Cameras – related to home security, but more remote: 2021 size of 70 million units, to grow to 84 million by 2027. Since these are in the woods away from power sources, wireless power sources are an ideal add on.

    E-bikes: 2022 size of 36 million units with 10^ growth to 77 million units by 2030. Similar to the EV Auto market, but many fewer technical hurdles to over come. E-Scooters are a sub-market.

    Cell towers: 2023 estimate of $29 Billion to grow to $110 Billion by 2030. A portion of this, the Telcom power systems market is estimated to be $2.1 Billion in 2021. Though the tower structure cost is significant, the sites also have back up power systems that can be expensive. Use the Ecat-NGU as the primary, inexpensive power source and the grid as a backup.

    Outdoor lighting power: The global outdoor lighting market size was valued at $15.34 billion in 2022 and is expected to expand at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.0% from 2023 to 2030. It is easy to put in a lighting pole. Finding a route for the power lines might be harder.

  184. Andrea Rossi

    Tom Kaminski:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  185. Giuseppe Censorio

    Dear Andrea,
    Your recent responses suggest that the industrial project around the Ecat is now at a very advanced stage.
    Can we affirm that 2024 will be the year of its definitive consecration?
    Or do you think much is yet to come?
    Regards, Giuseppe

  186. Andrea Rossi

    Giuseppe Censorio:
    I am optimist about this. We are very advanced.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  187. Tony

    Dear Dr Rossi,
    I think Zacharias Roeden is right, and I appreciate your answer, now few questions:
    Q1 are you ready to manufacture 500000 modules per year ?
    Q2 did you already organize the necessary agreements with all the out-sources ?
    Q3 will the EV you will make the demo with by this year be powered by the Ecat NGU ?
    Q4 did you experience attempts of espionage ?
    Q5 if the answer to Q4 is yes, which precautions did you set up ?
    Q6 are you very close, or did you already close an agreement with a big investor ?
    Q7 about your ability to turn into regular orders all the pre-orders you received, in a scale from 0% to 100%, at which level would you settle right now ?
    Thank you if you can answer,
    Tony

  188. Andrea Rossi

    Tony:
    A1 yes
    A2 yes
    A3 yes
    A4 yes
    A5 confidential
    A6 yes
    A7 90%+
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  189. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another eCat application

    magnetic levitation trains

    1. Assume small robotically controlled, self-propelled railcars that are aerodynamically shaped and can travel up to 300 mph (about 500 kph).
    2. Assume each car has seating for 12 people.
    3. The published energy consumption is 0.4 MegaJoules per passenger-mile.

    The energy consumption per mile is 4.8 MegaJoules per mile for the 12 person railcar.
    At 300 mph, a mile is completed every 12 seconds.
    The power requirement for the railcar is about 400 kW.
    Additional power would be required to exact Nitrogen from the air and cool it to LN2 to keep the superconducting magnets cool.

    In the envisioned system, a single railcar would quickly load up to 12 passengers and depart the station, accelerating until levitation speed was achieved. GPS could be used to monitor each railcar’s location, speed, etc.

    Thoughts?

  190. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  191. Anonimous

    I think the best thing is that the Ecat makes electricity and the customer makes of it what he wants enjoying the whole efficiency of the Ecat NGU, although to couple it with existing solar systems can be a good way to make easier to exploit the exixting authorizations and grid agreements

  192. Andrea Rossi

    Anonimous:
    Yes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  193. Anonymous

    Dr Rossi,
    I am curious to read your answers to the questions of Tony.
    Besides, I have another question: is the Ecat NGU able to recharge batteries ?

  194. Z.Roeden

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    without many demonstration you can’t reach the aim of one million pre-orders.
    At your website you show a 3 KW ecat ngu. So why you don’t show all kind of tests with it?
    Also your office surely has a coffeemaker, an electric kettle or else.
    Why no short videos about some tests?
    Best regards
    Z. Roeden

  195. Andrea Rossi

    Z.Roeden:
    We are preparing what you are asking for.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  196. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    What should a demonstration of a NGU-based solar panel supplementation look like?

    A suggestion:

    1. An outdoor demonstration using actual sunlight and subject to normal conditions (sun angle, clouds, weather effects).
    2. Two identical solar panels, mounted in the same manner, facing south (towards the sun).
    3. Each solar panel has a power meter. This could be a measure of the DC voltage from the solar panel (preferred), or the output from an off-grid inverter (acceptable), into a resistive load.
    4. Each power meter should display voltage, current, power, and total energy.
    5. A clock (analog or digital) to show the passage of time.
    6. Internet video showing each solar panel’s output.

    Another available video showing the two solar panels power performance for one complete day before the installation of the NGU supplementation.
    Another video showing how the NGU supplementation was integrated with the solar panel including testing and validation methods employed.

    Thoughts?

  197. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestions,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  198. Jan Holt

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    which E-CAT model is or will be suitable for being combined with photovoltaic panels?

    10 Watt model?
    100 Watt model?
    Some new model?

    Best Regards

    Jan Holt

  199. Andrea Rossi

    Jan Holt:
    It depends on the specific situations,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  200. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    An alternative way of funding the initial NGU manufacturing – leasing

    Assume an existing State-owned solar park with the capacity of 200 MW solar production (or more).

    Divide the solar park into two conceptual parks, each of 100 MW (or more) each. One will be equipped with NGU units and the other left untouched and used as a basis for comparison.

    1. Manufacture 333,334 300W NGU unit for solar panel supplementation – use leasing capitol to pay for the initial manufacturing.
    2. Assumption – with a sales price of $2.50USD per Watt, it is reasonable to believe the actual cost to manufacture is $1.25USD per Watt (or less).
    3. The cost to manufacture the initial NGU units will be 100 Million times $1.25 USD or $125 million USD (or less).
    4. Install the 300W NGU units on each of 333,334 solar panels in the solar park supplementation side.
    5. While the NGU unit runs 24/7, it will only add power to the solar panel output when the solar panel is NOT exposed to the maximum sunlight – assume 14 hours per day of less than maximum exposure – nighttime and early and late times of daylight or cloudy days or weather events.
    6. Assume a reimbursement (sale) price of $40USD per MW-hr.
    7. Number of MW-hrs per day is 1400.
    8. Reimbursement per day is $56,000 USD.
    9. Annual reimbursement is $20,440,000 USD.
    10 Annual Return On Investment (ROI) is 16.35%.

    Compute the non-supplemental solar park total energy per solar panel per day and compute the increase in the supplemental solar park total energy produced per day per solar panel as a basis for reimbursement. The two solar parks are assumed to be in the same environment.

    This assumes that the installation is trivial and the NGU units are reliable and they operate correctly over the environment.
    Reimbursement rates taken from US figures (on the low side).
    14 hours per day is likely on the low side, but depends on location (e.g., latitude).

    Thoughts?

  201. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels,
    Thank you for the suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  202. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Wilfried,

    The inverters already exist. They are called solar all-in-one inverters. I like the EG4 6000XP. Each unit accepts 2 phases. Use three such units for 3-phase power. They self-synchronize. They also accommodate generate input, and storage batteries (possibly needed for motor transients) and communications to a cell phone to a status and control app. Instead of using solar PV inputs, use NGU units, serially connected to be in the proper voltage level. Each unit can handle 6kW, so, three units would accommodate 18 kW. Each 6000XP costs about $1,500 USD. You can look on YouTube for reviews, etc. They can also be used in off-Grid applications. Higher output units also exist, i.e., 18 kW. They can handle both US and EU power.

    Using existing, certified equipment is generally less expensive, and more likely to be accepted by local electrical inspectors when approving a new installation. If AR did such a demonstration using two 3kW NGU units per inverter, I believe that would be a significant selling point.

  203. Giulia

    Dr Rossi,
    Are the inverters included in the price of the Ecats ?

  204. Andrea Rossi

    Giulia:
    For singular modules up to 100 W yes, for assemblies no. Leonardo Corporation will be able to sell them as an optional, but the Clients can also buy them independently depending on their specific situations,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  205. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    In India along, there are at least five major solar parks with a combined total power capacity of 7.17 GW of electrical power generation.

    Assume that you were to add eCat technology in parallel with individual solar panels and the NGU units were running at 75% of the maximum solar panel output, so as to reflect lower nighttime demand. If fully implemented, the added eCat technology would provide about 5.3 GW of electrical power generation.

    This might be implemented with three 100W NGU units, tied in series, to produce 36 VDC at 300W running in parallel to the solar panel’s output. The solar panel would produce a higher voltage at peak illumination but a lower voltage at low levels of solar illumination. The panel’s inverter, regardless of whether it was a microinverter, or if the solar panel was part of a string of panels going to a string inverter, the inverter would see continuous power from either the solar panel or the NGU units, whichever had the higher voltage.

    If you started with one of the smaller solar parks, say the Rewa Ultra Mega solar park, which has a power generation capacity of 0.75 GW, you could demonstrate an NGU capacity of 0.56 GW. This 560 MW NGU addition would include more than enough units to meet your requirement for 100 MW to go into full scale production.

    And there are other countries with large solar parks.

    I would assume you would develop a unit that produces 300W at 36VDC and that it would mount beneath the solar panel. It would accept power from the solar panel. The unit would output the highest voltage, providing power that goes to the existing infrastructure inverter. Of course, the unit would need to be weatherproof, etc.

    Thoughts?

  206. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels,
    Thank you for the suggestions,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  207. Wilfried

    Dear Andrea

    In the meantime, I’m no longer really convinced by the idea that the large orders should come from the automotive industry, because car companies certainly demand proof of a low MTBF in mass production and of course you can’t prove that before mass use. So the automotive industry won’t be a starter.
    I would find universal generators much more promising:
    4 kW peak load, small capacitor for high starting currents, inverter to national voltage (240 Vac in EU), mains socket for consumers, data connection to synchronize three such devices to three-phase current with 12 kW (with cable adapter three-phase socket and three mains cables) and connection option to domestic grid with battery and photovoltaics.
    This would be a completely universal device that could also be used as a charging station for cars or as a power supply on construction sites.
    Think about whether this would be worth a second strategy. I would order three such devices for three-phase current and house connection.

    Best Regards
    Wilfried

  208. Andrea Rossi

    Wilfried:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  209. Anonymous

    Dr Rossi,
    Do you confirm the streaming of the EV powered by the Ecat NGU within this year ?

  210. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  211. Roberto

    Dr Rossi,
    I think you are pursuing the correct strategy, either under a technological and the commercial point of view.
    All the best,
    Roberto

  212. Andrea Rossi

    Roberto:
    Thank you for your attention to the work of our Team,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  213. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another eCat application – fire fighting boats (aka fireboats)

    “the NYC fireboat is “the most technically advanced fireboat in the world.” At 140 feet long and with a 36-foot beam, the vessel has a top speed of 18 knots and can pump up to 50,000 gallons per minute (gpm), reportedly the highest volume of any fireboat ever commissioned.” Almost 9 MW of power is required.

    Conceptually, the four engines could be replaced with electric motors to provide propulsion and/or water pumping.

  214. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels,
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  215. M. Lucas

    A live counter with all pre-orders would trigger an order boom. This would be linked everywhere on social media. The goal would be achieved in a few weeks

  216. Andrea Rossi

    M.Lucas:
    We prefer not, because the situation is fluid, we receive many pre-orders that turn out to be fake. We prefer to communicate the result when it is certified.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  217. Dott AT

    Dear Dott. Rossi,
    I think there is a quick way to reach 1 million preorders. Just send and sell a thousand or less ecats, even to a greater price, and after that anyone will buy more, would like to become an affiliate partner, and spread the world to any of his Knowledge.
    Just my opinion.

    Best,
    Alessandro

  218. Andrea Rossi

    Dott AT:
    Impossible, as I already explained many times: we would give the possibility to the competitors to copy our technology before reaching the power to defend us.
    We have a precise strategy and we will follow it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  219. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another application for eCat technology.

    Recalling my days as an engineer, I would use rentacars when I went on business trips. The cars mostly sat in a parking lot othrr than trips between my motel, the place of business, and restaurants. And I didn’t like having to fill up the rentacar just before returning to the reantacar agency (or pay elevated costs for them refueling.

    Electric Vehicle (EV) rentacars could have a low power eCat unit that would charge the rentacar while it was parked. If used for a long trip, superchargers are available. It might be a nice feature for an EV rentacar.

  220. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  221. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another eCat application.

    “Tugboat diesel engines typically produce 500 to 2,500 kW (~ 680 to 3,400 hp), but larger boats (used in deep waters) can have power ratings up to 20,000 kW (~ 27,200 hp). Tugboats usually have an extreme power:tonnage-ratio; normal cargo and passenger ships have a P:T-ratio (in kW:GRT) of 0.35 to 1.20, whereas large tugs typically are 2.20 to 4.50 and small harbour-tugs 4.0 to 9.5. The engines are often the same as those used in railroad locomotives, but typically drive the propeller mechanically instead of converting the engine output to power electric motors, as is common for diesel-electric locomotives. For safety, tugboat engines often feature two of each critical part for redundancy.”

  222. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  223. Roberto

    Dr Rossi,
    What you are doing has an importance that it seems few have really understood: to reach the O.U. have been invested with no avail thousands of billions in the last half century, but thanks to your team we are talking to see possibly in one year from now cars and appliances work with certified products derived from your invention. I wonder if the greatness of this achievement is understood in all its greatness.
    Thank you for your work,
    Roberto

  224. Andrea Rossi

    Roberto:
    Thank you for your support to our Team,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  225. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    A suggestion on how to demonstrate the 3kW NGU technology.

    1. Use a 3kW pure sine wave inverter or a EG4 6000XP all-in-one inverter – to convert the DC from the NGU unit to AC. If a 3kW sine wave inverter is used, then match the output of the NGU unit to the input requirements of the inverter, e.g., 48VDC. If the 6000XP inverter is used, then match the NGU output to the PV input requirement for a single PV, e.g., 200VDC. Note the voltage and the current requirements to output 3kW.

    2. If the chosen inverter has a display, use that as part of your overall presentation to show average voltage and/or power input parameters. Alternatively, add a DC power meter to show voltage, current, power, and energy.

    3. The inverter output can have either a 120VAC output or a split-phase 120/240 VAC. The output should have at least 2 ports, each capable of handling 15 Amperes at 120 VAC.

    4. Run each output through an inline power meter – there are available units that have a connector on the input and the output of the unit and they can display parameters such as voltage, current, power, energy, and frequency. One in-line meter for each output. This should also be displayed.

    5. For the load, I suggest four submersible pumps each consuming 720W of electrical power, two running off of one output, and the other two running from the other output. This would add up to 2,880 Watts of consumed power. The four pumps would be in a nearby pond with the water output placed upwards forming 4 fountains. A water head of 30 feet or so would be nice. If available power is present, add some color changing fountain lighting to enhance the artistic presentation. Pumps are available with a 200 feet power cord.

    6. Add a clock, analog or digital, to show elapsed time/date and display it on the internet.

    7. Maybe house the inverter, NGU unit, and power meters on a glass table, showing no hidden wires, etc.

    8. All components, other than the NGU unit, are off-the-shelf, and relatively inexpensive. Or contract this out to a certified independent party.

    Thoughts?

  226. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for the suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  227. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Are you saying that the preciously posted lines (below) are not correct?

    There are several issues with using NGU technology to illuminate a solar panel for the purpose of producing electrical energy:

    1. The conversion efficiency (light-to-electrical power) is around 20%. This number varies but it is under 40% and likely more than 15%.
    2. The Sun, being very far away from the solar panel, illuminates the solar panel surface uniformly. A close-up light source would have difficulties in uniformly illuminating the solar panel.
    3. The illumination must have light energy in the wavelengths that the solar panel will respond to. Longer wavelengths than ultraviolet and shorter wavelengths than mid and far infrared.

  228. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  229. Karels, Steven

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another application for eCat Technology

    “The lunar regolith, the layer of loose material covering the Moon’s surface, has a fascinating chemical composition. Let’s delve into the major elements that make up this lunar soil:

    Oxygen (O): Constitutes 41-45% of the mass in lunar rocks and soils. It’s the most abundant element on the Moon.
    Silicon (Si): An essential component, mainly found in silicate minerals like plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine.
    Aluminum (Al): Another significant element, contributing to the structural properties of the regolith.”

    With sufficient electrical energy, the lunar regolith can be processed to provide Oxygen, Silicon (for glass), and Aluminum.

    A SpaceX Starship has a capacity of 150 short tons. With orbital refueling it can reach the Moon. 150 short tons is equal to 136,078 kilograms. 1kW of power can be provided by 2.5 kg of NGU technology. So, about 50 MW of power could be landed on the moon in one Starship delivery. Given enough time and power, vast amounts of oxygen, glass, and aluminum could be in situ produced.

    Thoughts?

  230. Dr. Rossi,

    On E-Cat World there is a discussion about the nature of dense cluster charges (EVOs or EVs) and their relationship to monopoles. Your paper on long-range particle interactions discusses cluster charges, but there is no mention of monopoles. K. Shoulders also discussed EVs but only briefly mentions monopoles.

    What is your personal option about the role of monopoles in charge aggregates?

    Warm regards,
    Greg

  231. Andrea Rossi

    Gregory Daigle:
    Although the Grand Unified and the Superstring theories have proposed the hypothesis of the existence of monopoles, I am not familiar with it; surely it has nothing to do with the concepts expressed in the paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  232. Helen Olstad

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    I will try to ask more precisely:

    Let’s assume that the photovoltaic system has 20 PV panels (500 Wp each), a total of 10 kWp.

    1) How many 10 Watt ECATs will I need to effectively illuminate these 20 PV panels?

    2) If the 10 Watt ECATs are unsuitable for PV panel illumination, what other ECAT model would You recommend and how many pieces (for 20 pcs of 500 Wp PV panels)?

    Have A Nice Day

    Helen

  233. Andrea Rossi

    Helen Olstad:
    We will discuss the specific situations of our Clients when we will be ready to deliver. In general, if you need a power of 10 kW, as you say, you will need an assembly of 100 x 100 W modules, which means a generator of 10 kW.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  234. Steven Nicholes Karels

    To JONP readers,

    It is not clear to me the AR intends to illuminate solar panels.

    There are several issues with using NGU technology to illuminate a solar panel for the purpose of producing electrical energy:

    1. The conversion efficiency (light-to-electrical power) is around 20%. This number varies but it is under 40% and likely more than 15%.
    2. The Sun, being very far away from the solar panel, illuminates the solar panel surface uniformly. A close-up light source would have difficulties in uniformly illuminating the solar panel.
    3. The illumination must have light energy in the wavelengths that the solar panel will respond to. Longer wavelengths than ultraviolet and shorter wavelengths than mid and far infrared.

    If the process that AR proposes to use is illumination of a solar panel powered by NGU technology, then the optical power produced by the NGU unit must (roughly) be about 5 times higher than the equivalent electrical power from the NGU unit. For example, a 10W NGU electrical output would need to illuminate the solar panel with at least 50W of optical power.

    Likewise, the illumination must be uniform over the solar panel to achieve optimum results. As an example, if the surface of a solar panel is in sunlight but it is in partial shade, from a building or the branch of a tree, then the output will decrease. If several solar panel outputs are tied in series (a PV string), then the output current of all of the solar panels in the string will be limited by the solar panel that has the most shadow on it.

    I do not believe that the NGU unit internally generates optical light and converts it to electrical power via an internal PV cell. The supporting rationale is that AR has stated that the NGU does not produce significant heat. Such an internal PV conversion would generate lots of heat.

    I suggest that the supplementation to the solar panel will be done on the electrical (output) side of the solar panel. This would utilize the existing inverter component to convert the DC power to grid-ready AC power. In such a system, the NGU power will be supplementing the solar panel produced power so that the inverter was generating the most power it could both during daytime and nighttime operation. Basically, constant power being produced, 24 hours per day. If done, this would make solar panel power a Baseload power source – constant power, 24/7 for many, many months.

    I do not expect AR to confirm this hypothesis. We will need to wait for the solar demonstration before the implementation is described, or not described.

  235. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    I did not say that the previously posted lines are not correct !
    Thank you for your suggestions,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  236. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    “The Al Dhafra Solar PV project is the world’s largest single-site solar power plant, using almost 4 million bifacial solar panels.”

    Current bifacial PV solar panels generate 460 W to 560 W in full sunlight conditions.

    Whether each solar panel has its own micro-inverter or is used in a string configuration, there is an opportunity for NGU technology to be applied here.

    If you were to develop a nominal 400W NGU unit and merged its output with the DC output of the solar panel using a diode bridge (highest voltage source conducts), you could supplement the solar panel output during nighttime, during sandstorms, or on cloudy days. There are almost 4 million panels there. Almost 4 million 460W to 560W NGU units would generate about 2GW of electrical power.

    More electrical power (from the solar panels) would be available during the daytime (assuming no clouds) and then somewhat less electrical power would be available at night. This would mirror the normal daytime vs nighttime power demand. The output voltage of the NGU units would need to be established slightly below the normal full illumination voltage of the solar panel.

    Thoughts?

  237. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    The last 2 lines of your comment are correct.
    Thank you for your insight, anyway.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  238. Andrea Rossi

    W.Schultz:
    1- no
    2- yes
    3- n.a.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  239. Gerard McEk

    @Helen Olstad
    Hi Helen, could you tell why you want to illuminate the solar panels with use of the Ecat?
    My believe is that if you would use the electrical output power of the Ecat directly, the total efficiency would be a lot higher in comparison to the by you proposed way of Ecat -> light -> solar panels -> electricity.
    Maybe you want to convert the output to AC during the night? In that case I advice to switch over the DC output of the solar panels to the Ecat at the input side of your solar converter.
    Please ensure that your converter specification would accept the Ecat’s output specification.
    Regards, Gerard McEk

  240. Helen Olstad

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    I will try to ask more precisely:

    Let’s assume that the photovoltaic system has 20 PV panels (500 Wp each), a total of 10 kWp.

    How many 10 Watt ECATs will I need to effectively illuminate these 20 PV panels?

    Have A Nice Day

    Helen

  241. W.Schulz

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    will your ecat work also with a balcony PV power plant? (like this: https://www.amazon.de/s?k=balcony+power+plant&crid=3P8DDBHOYG2XC&sprefix=balcony+power+plant%2Caps%2C95&ref=nb_sb_noss_1 )

    How much Watt could a 800 W balcony PV plant produce in the dark of a night with a 100 W Ecat ngu?
    1) more than 100 W ?
    2) or just 100 W ? (so there would be no gain for the use of a PV)
    3) how much W about?
    Best regards
    W.Schulz

  242. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    As the eCat NGU has no moving parts and is said to not generate heat, the projected lifetime of 100,000 hours may be an estimate on the low side.

    From the internet “On average, New York City consumes 8,000 megawatts of electricity. However, when New Yorkers switch on their air conditioners during the sweltering summer, the citywide demand can surge to 11,500 megawatts.” The surge is almost 12 GW of electrical power.

    Consider a glass cube, 20 meters on a side with 6-inch or 1-foot-thick walls. Within the cube are 340,000 3kW NGU units. In addition to the NGU units, there are triple redundant solid-state inverters and control logic, each with the capability to output up to 1 GW of electrical power to the Greater New York City area, although the output of a single cube would be limited to about 1 GW of electrical power.

    The glass cube is buried in the Hudson River (alternatively in the ocean). Triple redundant buried cables carry the power to the existing power grid. When the demand is low, the existing power grid can send the excess power to New York State and/or to other States. Alternatively, some of the NGU units can be temporarily turned off.

    A simple, triple redundant control and status system is connected to each cube. Buried beneath the water under 3 meters of soil, each Cube is secure. Being glass enclosed, it will never corrode. The power will go on forever, with some degradation in output as a few components fail over time.

    12 such cubes are geographically distributed around the Greater New York City waterways. More can be added if needed as the population changes. Being buried and made of glass, there is no environmental impact because of the Cube.

    Think BIG or go home! LOL.

  243. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  244. Helen Olstad

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    I would still like to ask about this important thing:
    Will the ECATs that will be able to directly illuminate the PV panels be a 10W model, a 100W model or some new model?

    Have A Nice Day

    Helen

  245. Andrea Rossi

    Helen Olstad:
    It depends on the power of the system,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  246. Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers of the JoNP:
    Today has been published the paper “New Scientific Paradigm: Primacy of Movement- Low Energy Nuclear Fusion Chain Reaction (LENR) Is a New Source of Carbon-Free Energy and a Non Mechanical Engine” by Prof. Alexandr Nikitin
    The JoNP

  247. Jane Feather

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Do you think that the weight/W of the Ecat will compete in the market of the EVs and the drones ?
    Best,
    Jane

  248. Andrea Rossi

    Jane Feather:
    For EVs yes, for the drones we are working,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.