Rossi Blog Reader

This website tracks recent postings to Andrea Rossi's Journal of Nuclear Physics, sorting the entries with priority to Rossi's answers, which appear under each question.


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• Updated: 2024-06-25 22:40:09.075374Z

  1. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    you posted:

    “You should compare the cost/kWh, not the cost/kW 24 h/day, 365 days/year in the timespan of 10 years; so far we are not able to know if our cost/kW will decrease; it will depend mainly on the economy scale.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.”

    Analysis
    Time period: 10 years = 87,600 hours = 3,650 days.

    NGU: Assume 100% usage, 300W of power output, cost is $750.
    NGU produced power is 300W * 87,600 hours = 26,280 kW-hrs
    Or
    35.04 kw-hr/$ or 2.83 cents per kW-hr.

    Solar Panel:
    Assume 400W capable, gives an average of 300W per 10-hour day. No output during the other 14 hours per day. 400W solar panel costs $200. Lifetime of 25 years.
    Energy produced = 300W * 10 hrs/day * 3,650 days = 10,950 kW-hrs
    Or
    10.950 kW-hrs/$200 = 54.75 kW-hrs /$ or 1.83 cents per kW-hr.

    Note: The solar panel has a warranty of 25 years.

  2. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  3. Jan Srajer

    Mr. Rossi
    1. Is the Ecat SKLed safe against falling from 1m
    2. Will Ecat SKLed still work at 9V?
    3. Is the Ecat SKLed rain resistant?
    4. Is the Ecat SKLed resistant to frequent switching on and off
    Warm regards

  4. Andrea Rossi

    Jan Srajer:
    Absolutely !
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  5. Jan Šrajer

    Mr.Rossi
    Congratulations. The Florida Panthers won. A good example to follow.
    All the Best. J.Š.

  6. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Solar panels are now priced at about $200USD for a 300W solar panel. Depending on the location, they provide power for about 1/3 of a day (over a period of 24 hours). So, the average cost per Watt of electrical power is about $2USD per Watt – averaged over a 24-hour period of operation.

    Your current price is $2.50USD per Watt for the NGU technology.

    Do you foresee your price decreasing as the cost of solar panels decreases?

  7. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    You should compare the cost/kWh, not the cost/kW 24 h/day, 365 days/year in the timespan of 10 years; so far we are not able to know if our cost/kW will decrease; it will depend mainly on the economy scale.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  8. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another application for NGU Technology – Canoe/boat trolling motor

    A typical trolling motor, that could attach to the side of a canoe or fishing boat, requires 12VDC and up to 50Amps. There are commercially available mounting adapters, batteries, and electric trolling motors.

    How about using 6 100W NGUs to power a canoe or small fishing boat?

    I did, several years ago, an overnight canoe trip by oar. A long duration trolling motor would have made the journey so much more enjoyable.

    Thoughts?

  9. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  10. Anonymous

    Dr Rossi,
    Are you still collaborating with Physics Professors ?

  11. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Yes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  12. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    On the 3kW units, I suggest that you allow the option for increasing the output voltage of the 3kW unit so that the current is reduced below 15Amps. If this is done, then the 3kW unit can directly interface with many inverters, which typically have a maximum current limitation of 15 Amps (or greater).

  13. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for the suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  14. Germana

    Dr Rossi,
    will you make the Ecat NGU demo at the same time and place of the Ecat-powered EV demo ?

  15. Andrea Rossi

    Germana:
    No,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  16. Emil Growatt

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    is there any power version of the ECAT NGU capable of lighting (without using LED)?

    If yes, which version?

    If no version of ECAT NGU is able to light (without using LED), please simply write/admit it.

    Best Regards

    Emil

  17. Andrea Rossi

    Emil Growatt:
    Strange question: the Ecat generates electricity and any kind lamp ( with exception of candles ) are powered by means of electricity; as a consequence of this fact, obviously the Ecat SKLep NGU can light any lamp ( with exception of candles ),
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  18. Jan Srajer

    Is the life time of the Ecat SKLed 100 000 hours independently from the luminous flow ?
    Warm Regards,
    Jan Srajer

  19. Andrea Rossi

    Jan Srajer:
    I am not able to answer,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  20. Jan Šrajer

    Mr.Rossi
    If a vacuum is not needed to initiate ZPE, then in the future it will be possible to obtain energy from materials other than nickel and lithium. Am I right?

    Warm regards J.Š.

  21. Jan Srajer

    Mr.Rossi
    I know you’re careful about business. But could your advertising activity be more aggressive?

    Warm regards

  22. Andrea Rossi

    Jan Srajer:
    Yes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  23. Jan Šrajer

    Mr.Rossi
    Do you think it is possible to get ZPE energy without using a vacuum?

    Warm regards J.Š.

  24. Jean Paul Renoir

    Dr Rossi,
    Still about the paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    the zero point energy derives from a reverse difference of entropy, is that correct ?
    Best
    JPR

  25. Andrea Rossi

    Jean Paul Renoir:
    Yes, the reverse difference of Entropy, not to violate the Third principle of Thermodynamics, needs a “creative” act to start a series of ceosequent evolutions, in the case of the Ecat System represented by the dV/dT induced to the electrons to start the formation of coherent charge clusters, as explained in the paper you cited,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  26. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    An Application for the 3kW NGU device – direct supplemental 3-Phase Power Generation

    Assumption – The 3kW NGU unit can output 60VDC at up to 50Amps.

    Enphase has developed a 3-phase microinverter – IQ8P-3P-72-E-US. In single quantities it has a price of $165.50USD. Up to 12 such units may be connected to run in parallel using a 3-Phase 20Amp breaker. The unit has a CEC efficiency of 97.5%. It is Grid Safe.

    Consider using two 3kW NGU units. Each 3kW NGU units will power 6 microinverters. A string of 12 such inverters will feed a 20Amp 3-phase circuit breaker. I selected a Square D EGB34020 3-Phase circuit breaker with a cost of $357.94USD. This subsystem would produce 5.7 kW of power to flow into the electrical grid.

    Duplicate this ten times and you can output 200Amp 3-phase power to a grid transformer to convert the energy to high voltage transmission power with a continuous production of 57kW.

    Do the above same 18 times and you have 1MW of 3-phase power, synchronized to the electrical grid.

    Microinverter cooling is by natural convective cooling.

    This could easily be added to a substation. Adding remotely controlled switching would allow controlling the amount of power flowing into the electrical grid.

    For each generated MW of power, 2,160 3kW units would be needed.

    Instead of a large GW power generation complex, each substation could have its own generation capability – subject to grid power being available to voltage and phase synchronize the generated power.

    Thoughts?

  27. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  28. Jan Srajer

    Mr. Rossi
    Can the E-CAT-SKL also supply electric energy to an electric motor?

    Warm Regards

  29. Andrea Rossi

    Jan Srajer:
    Thank you for your attention to the work of our Team,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  30. Jan Šrajer

    Mr.Rossi
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    It is just the beginning, or so I think, of looking at a new model of the atom. There will certainly be new theories in this area. Niels Bohr said that eventually the most fantastic theory will prove to be correct.
    In your case, this will happen when the world sees your invention in action.
    Today we can only guess what the consequences will be.
    All the best.J.Š

  31. Roberto

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    I imagine you are continuing twenty years since to be under strong pressure, so, due to the importance of your work, can we know how is presently your health ?
    Are you still playng tennis now and again ?
    All the best,
    Roberto

  32. Andrea Rossi

    Roberto:
    Thanks God all my periodical control visits show a good situation, probably a legacy of my agonistic career when I was young.
    Yes, I still play tennis regularly with my wife: in general, while growing differently young through the passing time, the quality of tennis decreases, but in my case this doesn’t happen, because my tennis can’t get any worse…
    Thank you for your concern,
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  33. Steven Nicholes Karels

    A Theoretical Point Design for a Solar Farm in Saudi Arabia

    Assumptions

    Assume LG 400W Bifacial solar panels, tied in a string series manner.
    Assume an EG4 18KPV-12LV hybrid inverter is used.
    Standard Temperature Conditions (STC): 20 degC. 1,000 W/m2 solar

    Saudia Arabia

    Lattitude: about 24 degrees
    Minimum Temperature: -12 degC
    Maximum Temperature: +52 degC

    Solar Panel Characteristics

    Nominal Power output under STC: 400W
    STC Bifacial Power Output: 450W
    Open Circuit Voltage (Voc) @ STC: 49.7 Volts
    Maximum Current – Bifacial: 8.65Amps
    Temperature Coefficient – Voltage: -0.26 %/degC

    EG4 Hybrid Inverter Characteristics

    Full Power MPPT Voltage Range: 120 to 500V
    Nominal MPPT Voltage: 360V
    Maximum input current per MPPT: 2 MPPTs of 12.5Amps; 2 MPPTs of 15Amps
    Maximum number MPPS inputs: 4
    Maximum Utilized Solar Power: 18kW
    Recommended Maximum Solar Panel Power: 21kW

    Point Design

    1. Determine maximum number of solar panels in a string. The string voltage must never exceed the inverter’s maximum voltage.

    Determine worst case solar panel output voltage:
    Vmax = 49.7V + (-2.6 * 49.7V / 100) * (-12degC – 20degC) = 91.05V
    Maximum number of solar panels in series = 500V / 91.05V = 5.49 => 5 solar panels in series.
    Note: MPPT current limitation does not allow solar panel strings in parallel.

    2. Maximum power per solar panel string = 5 * 450W = 2.25kW (bifacial)

    Nominal string voltage = 5 * 49.7V = 248.5V
    Assume 2 strings input to one EG4 18KPV-12LV power: 2 * 2.25 kW = 4.5 kW
    Note: Inverter can accept up to 21 kW of PV power but is can use only 18kW of solar power. Maximum solar panel power only occurs during daylight hours, maybe 6 – 10 hours per day. Assume 6 hours per day in this analysis.

    3. Solar Panel Supplementation – 8 kW per inverter.

    2 strings with 5 solar panels per string = 10 solar panels per inverter.
    NGU supplementation of 800W electrical per solar panel or 8 each 100W NGU s per solar panel. Each string will have a total of 5 x 8 NGUs at 12V per NGU = an NGU string voltage of 480V, which is lower than the 500V inverter limit. Each NGU string will have a current of 8.33 Amps.

    4. Power analysis: Each inverter can provide up to 12kW electrical power.

    In one day, the total NGU-provided output power will be 8 kW * 24 hours = 192 kW-hrs. Assuming 6 hours of full solar panel output = 6 hours * 4.5kW = 27 kW-hrs from solar power. Combined power = 192 kW-hrs + 27 kw-Hrs = 219 kW-hrs per day. During mid-day, the inverter can output 11.5 kW of power. In the evening hours, the inverter would provide 8kW of power.

    5. Implementation

    While the solar panel power would be supplemented by the NGUs in this point design, the NGU power would run to the inverter on separate power lines from the solar panel string power lines.

    Alternatively, if the NGU power were to directly add to the solar panel power using the same conductors, this could be done in multiple different designs, consistent with the limitations imposed by the inverter input requirements. Each possible design would need to go through a similar analysis.

  34. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  35. Emil Growatt

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    how can photovoltaic installation companies understand and decide which version of E-CAT to pre-order ?

    Best Regards

    Emil Growatt

  36. Andrea Rossi

    Emil Growatt:
    The basic module is the 100 W; everybody can pre-order a multiple of 100 modules to cover his power needs; the price/W is the same, whatever the version; when we will be ready to deliver we will contact the Clients for the details and the possible optionals, and the order confirmation ( or cancellation, depending on the Client’s will ).
    As you know, no money is requested at the pre-order phase, and if the Client, whatever the reason, will cancel the pre-order , no money will change place.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  37. Manuel Cilia

    Dear Dr Rossi will you be creating 19 inch rack version of the Ecat unit so we can slide them into standard cabinets or will that be up to us to make.

    Thanks

  38. Jimmy Hunt

    Dr Rossi,
    You wrote here that your manufacturing centers are in the USA and Europe. Are you planning to manufacture also in Asia, Africa and Australia ?
    Best,
    Jimmy

  39. Andrea Rossi

    Jimmy Hunt:
    Yes. We have patents granted also in Asia, Africa and Australia, and we have important contacts in the making.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  40. Udo

    Dr Rossi,
    reading the paragraphs 5,6 and the experiment description of
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    I think I have understood how the Ecat works. I think the plasma is still the source, am I wrong ?
    Thank you for your immense work,
    Udo

  41. Andrea Rossi

    Udo:
    You are not wrong,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  42. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Bifacial solar panels are used to collect sunlight energy from both the front and the rear of the solar panel. This might be a ground array with the front side pointed the average elevation angle of the sun (based on latitude). It could also be mounted vertically, like in a fence, with the side pointed south and with alternating, adjacent, solar panels with the front side alternating. This has the advantage of picking up energy during diffuse light conditions such as clouds or snow on the ground.

    The NGU supplementation device should be able to be mounted beneath the bifacial solar panel so as to not cast a shadow on adjacent solar panels.

    Thoughts?

  43. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  44. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    One application that you might incorporate into your PV solar panel supplementation is to use excess power to cool the augmented solar panel.

    The efficiency of any solar panel decreases as it heats up. Also, you are limited by the downstream electronics as to how much voltage and power the electronics can accept. When the sun is high and greatly illuminating the PV solar panel, it will increase its temperature, cause both by the surrounding environment and the solar radiation. Diverting some of the NGU output power to direct air on the underside of the PV solar panel will help reduce the PV solar panel’s temperature. This will result in improve PV solar panel lifetime and increased output power.

    You would need to study this further, but it might make sense to use excess power to cool the air directed at the PV solar panel.

    Thoughts?

  45. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for the suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  46. Prof

    Dr Rossi,
    Here are the stats of your papers on Researchgate I found today on
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Total Readings: 142000 (of which 130090 only for “Ecat SK and long range particle interactions), more than the 99% of 1.5 millions of publications on Researchgate
    Research Interest Score Index: 2905, higher than the 99% of 1.5 million publications on Researchgate
    Recommendations: 11244, more that the 99% of 1.5 million publications on Researchgate
    Most Reads by Cathegories: Chemical Engineers, Electronic Engineers, Theoretical Physicists, Researchers
    Most Reads by Seniority: PhD Students, Professors, Seniors
    Most Reads by Geographic Areas: USA, Europe, Asia
    And counting…
    Prof

  47. Andrea Rossi

    Prof:
    Thank you for the update,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  48. Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    I made 2 important corrections in the comment with my answer to Keith T !
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  49. Stephen

    Hi

    Ahh I now see Donald Chandler posted it below.

    Ivv bc should check more carefully

    It’s interesting article I think

    Thanks

    Stephen

  50. Andrea Rossi

    Stephen:
    Yes, the comment of KeithT was important,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  51. Jitse

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    I had a problem with my apple the screen has a technical problem, half works normally the other part doesn’t.
    My new on use my email was to old I only can read them, can jou change it in ijtsmabv1@gmail.com

  52. Andrea Rossi

    Jitse:
    OK
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  53. Stephen

    Dear Rossi and Kieth T,

    I was yesterday wondering if this recent article article in Phys org could be important:

    https://phys.org/news/2024-06-interact-extreme-intensities-schwinger-limit.amp

    Was it already raised here ? Its an interesting coincidence if not.

    Best Regards

    Stephen

  54. KeithT

    Within your ResearchGate paper;

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long-range_particle_interactions

    You refer to [8] the 2017 paper: F. Celani, A.O. Di Tommaso and G. Vassallo – The Electron and Occam’s Razor;

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320274514_The_Electron_and_Occam's_Razor

    Within this paper the magnetic flux density (B field) produced by a non-point like electron is deduced, equation (30), a value is obtained of 4.414004 x 10^9 V s m^-2 = Tesla. Although not stated in the paper this value is also the Schwinger limit for a magnetic field before nonlinearity. (Also for an electron the E field = B field x speed of light, the resulting value is also a Schwinger limit);

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schwinger_limit

    Regards,

    Keith Thomson.

  55. Andrea Rossi

    KeithT:
    I agree with your comment: it is another confirmation of the Zitterbewegung electron model.
    See also the paragraph 1.5 of the paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/380122888_charge_clusters_low_energy_nuclear_reactions_and_electron_structure
    wherein is explicitly written that the Schwinger limits are equal to the values of the electric and magnetic fields generated by the motion at the speed of light of the electron charge.
    Thank you for the links,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  56. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi

    Yet another NGU application – dedicated power to AI servers.

    “The agency says current data center energy usage stands at around 460 terawatt hours in 2022 and could increase to between 620 and 1,050 TWh in 2026 — equivalent to the energy demands of Sweden or Germany, respectively.”

    A typical single server might require 3 kW or less of electrical power.

    AI servers would be continuously in use and they will draw constant power. NGU technology would replace Uninterrupted Power Supplies (UPS) and they would generate their own power. They would pay for themselves in avoiding grid power costs.

    Many data centers have raised floors where the cable runs are found. A 3 kW NGU unit, since it generates little or no power, could be located under a server rack. Or. they could generate all the power for all the servers in a data center.

    Thoughts?

  57. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for the suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  58. Donald Chandler

    Interesting article here describing a chain reaction production of photons, electrons and positrons.
    https://phys.org/news/2024-06-interact-extreme-intensities-schwinger-limit.html

  59. Andrea Rossi

    Donald Chandler:
    Thank you for the link,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  60. Ruby

    @Donald Chandler,
    Thank you for this interesting publication; an important feature of this blog is its richness in scientific contributions updates made by the readers,
    Cheers
    Ruby

  61. Prof

    Dr Rossi,
    Today the paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    reached 130 000 (onehundredthirtythousand) total readings, more than 1.5 million papers published on Researchgate,
    and counting…
    All the best,
    Prof

  62. Andrea Rossi

    Prof:
    Thank you for the update,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  63. Weleda

    From your answer to Anonymous yesterday I understand that the control system of the Ecat will be able to run it in parallel with the solar system connected to the grid, avoiding all the complications related to a new grid connection: did I understand correctly ? This way any solar system will keep generating electricity also if the panels will be in the dark or under the snow, correct ?

  64. Andrea Rossi

    Weleda:
    Yes, you are correct,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  65. gicquel

    Good morning,
    Also a considerable area: controlled mechanical ventilation of buildings, whether individual or collective housing. Very often at fixed speed via an asynchronous motor, and flow timing via belt pulley, we have a simple box on the roof, and “fine” regulation is done via variable flow vents in sensitive rooms (bathroom). bath, kitchen). So 8560h/year of operation between 3/4 and 4/4 load if it was calculated correctly..

  66. Andrea Rossi

    Gicquel:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  67. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another NGU application – Traffic Control Lights

    “The LED traffic signal bulb uses approximately 15 watts of power, compared to the average of 100 watts of power used by the traditional incandescent halogen bulb.”

    “There are approximately 272,000 traffic signals in the United States, each playing a crucial role in managing traffic flow and safety at intersections.:

    The traffic control lights (“Stop Lights”) commonly use an AC to 24VDC converter. Therefore, two 10W NGU units could autonomously power a traffic control unit.

    Even when grid power was lost, the traffic control lights would continue working.

    The mean time between failure for an LED traffic control light is 50,000 hours. The NGU lifetime is estimated at 100,000 hours.

    Over the 50,000 hours of operating lifetime (on the average), assuming an average consumption of 15W, 750 kW-hrs would be consumed. At $0.20 USD per kH-hr the cost savings would be $150 USD. The cost of the two 10W NGU is estimated to be $50 USD.

    Thoughts?

  68. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  69. Anonymous

    Maybe your point with the solar systems is that they could be something like a troyan horse to make the Ecats to produce their energy immediately in parallel, allowing the solar systems in the whole world able to make energy 24 hours per day, 365 days per year even if it snows, rains, night and day, just exploiting a grid connection just ready immediately ?
    This could be a revolution !
    Anonymous

  70. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Yes. Probably we will be able to make the connection very easy. Our Team is working very well on this issue and I am very optimistic.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  71. Jorge

    Dr Rossi
    Does the plasma of the Ecat described in
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    ,that is the source of the zero point energy, have a polarity bias ? I mean: do the electrons composing it have a polarity ?
    Thank you if you can answer,
    Best,
    Jorge

  72. Andrea Rossi

    Jorge:
    Good question; the issue is already explained in the paper you cited; I will send a photo to EW to show the issue.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  73. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another NGU Application – Cell Phone Towers

    “There are about five million cell phone towers worldwide, 640,000 of which aren’t connected to an electrical grid and largely run on diesel power. One study estimated that 75,000 new off-grid towers would be established in 2012 alone.”

    “The average cellular base station, which comprises the tower and the radio equipment attached to it, can use anywhere from about one to five kilowatts (kW).”

    Cell Phone towers require energy 24 hours per day. This would make cell phone communications possible even in the event of electrical grid failures. 

    1 kW to 5 kW equals approximately 10 to 50 100W NGU units.

    Powering only the diesel power units would require between 6.4 million 100W units and 32 million units. Powering all Cell phone towers would require between 50 million and 250 million units.

    Thoughts?

  74. Last month you have shown high vacuum system in a lab of Leonardo Corporation which is used to make the E-Cat SKLep NGU.It would be appreciated if you could show other parts of the lab and the workshop with the many prototypes you have built till now. A photo of some of your coworkers would be a delight.

  75. Andrea Rossi

    M.M.:
    We may only publish images that do not unveil particulars we deem restricted; notwithstanding this, we will publish some more images,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  76. Anonymous

    Dr Rossi,
    The demo you will make with the Ecat NGU will be in SSM mode on the base of the theoretical principles explained in
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    ?

  77. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Yes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  78. Anthony

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Can you tell us where are manufactured now the Ecats ?

  79. Andrea Rossi

    Anthony:
    USA and Europe,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  80. Andrea Rossi

    Russian and Ukranian ( in alphabetical order ):
    I am responding to both of you in a peaceful context.
    In Russia and Ukraine both I have friends and I hope soon, very soon, to meet them all together when we will be ready to deliver the Ecats they all have pre-ordered; obviously, I also hope to continue to serve all the Clients we will reach in both these Countries.
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  81. Russian

    @Ukranian,
    You are responsible for the problems you have now: should you have been more intelligent two years ago this special operation could end much before
    @Mr Rossi: will you serve your Ecats also in Russia ?

  82. Ukrainian

    In Ukraine, more than 50% of electricity generation was destroyed. In Ukraine, emergency shutdown schedules have put into effect. Consumers receive electricity every 2 hours (2 hours on / 2 hours off , or even worse). Can you make efforts or negotiate to supply the eCat to Ukraine?

  83. Paul Dodgshun

    Below is my submission about SKLeps to the United Kingdom Parliament. Because there is to be a parliamentary election in July there is no guarantee that my submission will be further considered but it will remain in the record. Re-reading my submission, I should have inserted ‘when run at full power’. There are 652 other submissions :-

    https://committees.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/122626/html/
    Written evidence submitted by Paul Dodgshun (GRI0001)

    My current price for grid electricity is 30p/kwh. The running cost of the SKLep is zero but the capital cost is £2000 per kw. Depreciation over the predicted lifetime of 100,000 hours is 2 p/kwh. Therefore, SKLep electricity costs 15 times less than grid electricity or 5 times less than mains gas when used for heating.

    At these prices all other generation or capital expenditure on the grid will be massively uncompetitive. It should be kept in mind that expenditure that further increases the cost of grid electricity will accelerate the rate at which consumers abandon the grid and generate all their own electricity.

    Detail regarding SKLeps can be read at the URL:

    http://ecatthenewfire.com

    July 2023

  84. Andrea Rossi

    Paul Dodgshun:
    Thank you for your action.
    Strongly appreciated.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  85. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    In response to a question on the solar panel integration, you posted
    “As I already answered, we will explain the details of the integration of the Ecat with solar systems when we will be ready to deliver the Ecats.”

    Do you plan on a demonstration of the solar panel supplementation this year?

  86. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Maybe, yes,
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  87. Roberto Ridolfi

    Dr Rossi:
    Are you still convinced that the Zitterbewegung phase coherence plays a role in the rationale of the Ecat mechanism ?
    All the best,
    Roberto

  88. Andrea Rossi

    Roberto Ridolfi:
    About the ZBW rationale in the Ecat mechanism, I confirm the point of view explained in the paragraph 2.2 of
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    You will find there also important references along the text.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  89. Simon

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    could you already tell us the date of
    1) the demonstration of the ecat work with PV
    2) the demonstration of the ecat work with an electric heater

    If not, maybe the month or season?

    Best regards
    Simon

  90. Andrea Rossi

    Simon:
    We didn’t yet schedule the dates, but it should be around the third quarter of this year, as well as the test with the EV,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  91. John Whitney

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    that’s very nice that integration is possible.

    However, 4 million owners of photovoltaic power plants are more interested in this question:

    Is any Ecat model capable of directly lighting (without using LED) onto photovoltaic panels?

    If yes, which version of the Ecat?

    Best Regards

    John Whitney

  92. Andrea Rossi

    John Whitney:
    As I already answered, we will explain the details of the integration of the Ecat with solar systems when we will be ready to deliver the Ecats.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  93. John Whitney

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    have your technicians managed to find out which particular version of Ecat (10W, 100W) will be able to shine directly (without LED) on the PV panels?

    Best Regards
    John Whitney

  94. Andrea Rossi

    John Whitney:
    The integration of the Ecat with solar systems will be possible with any Ecat assembling,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  95. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    “Puerto Rico has no coal reserves and produces no coal. The Commonwealth has one coal-fired electricity generating plant, located at Guayama. The 454-megawatt plant began operations in 2001. Puerto Rico consumed 1.4 million tons of coal in 2021, the lowest amount since 2018. Almost all of it was bituminous coal to fuel the power plant. Puerto Rico plans to phase out coal-fired electricity generation by 2028.”

    This single plant, if converted to NGU technology, would require about 4.6 million 100W NGU units.

    Thoughts?

  96. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels,
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  97. Rodrigo

    Dr Rossi,
    Reading the paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    I understood that a key point is the “long range interactions”.
    Can you suggest references related to this issue ?

  98. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another eCat NGU Application – American Samoa

    “Because it is an isolated island group, American Samoa must produce all the electricity it consumes. The territory has almost 50 megawatts of total electricity generating capacity. Diesel generators supply more than nine-tenths of American Samoa’s electricity, nearly all of it on the main island, Tutuila. The American Samoa Power Authority (ASPA), a government corporation, owns and operates two generating plants on Tutuila that have about 45 megawatts of combined diesel-fueled capacity. Captured waste heat emitted by diesel generators at ASPA’s power plants on Tutuila also produces electricity. In 2021, American Samoa also had more than 5 megawatts of grid-connected solar powered capacity. In addition to electricity, ASPA provides drinking water, solid waste removal, and wastewater treatment. Pumping, treating, distributing, and collecting water uses a significant share of the electricity ASPA generates.”

    The 5 MW of grid-connected solar power could be converted to NGU-supplemented units for 24/7 electricity production.

    The remaining 45 MW of capacity could use NGU units to replace the diesel generators. Shipping and handling the diesel, which must be shipped to the island, is expensive. In addition, the carbon emissions would be reduced.

    Using 100W NGU units for 50 MW of electricity generation would require 500,000 units. This is 1/2 of your published target. Maybe a target program by the US Government could be developed?

    Thoughts?

  99. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels,
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  100. WaltC

    Dr. Rossi,
    I’ve been on the preorder list for Ecat devices for a long time, and the one, main hesitation I’ve had, from the very start, was that the devices come in a form that is a partial kit rather than as a turnkey solution– that is, a device that’s usable immediately out of the box.

    If you were to offer a turnkey option for the Ecat-120v that looked and functioned similar to this: ( http://www.amazon.com/dp/B0CQLX82NQ ) and, conceptually, was not much more complex than the current non-turnkey option, I’d definitely increase the size of my preorder (and be willing to pay more than the $2.50/W).

    Question: Would you ever consider offering a Turnkey Option, like the one mentioned above, to your preorder list?

    Best Wishes,
    WaltC

    P.S.- As a “figure of merit”, Power Station listed above (as an example) costs $0.68 per watt-hour of capacity. An Ecat-based solution would be more than 1000 times cheaper than that.

  101. Andrea Rossi

    WaltC:
    Thank yu for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  102. Renato

    Dear Andrea,
    I wish you an Happy Birthday !
    And add my best wishes for your ECAT, and for all the JoNP readers,
    to see your invention soon available on the market.
    Buon Compleanno !
    Renato

  103. Andrea Rossi

    Renato:
    Thank you for your kind wishes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  104. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Do you foresee or estimate that the largest application category for your technology is:

    1. Electricity Grid Power Generation
    2. Direct heating
    3. Transportation
    4. Other categories?

  105. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Electricity generation for any purpose,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  106. Roland

    Dr Rossi,
    Has already been chosen the car to make the demo with ?
    Best,
    Roland

  107. Andrea Rossi

    Roland:
    Yes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  108. Yury E.

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    can you share your plan for the next six months, which will be interesting for all of us.
    Best Regards,
    Yury E.

  109. Andrea Rossi

    Yury E.:
    I will do soon,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  110. Kay

    Hello Mr Rossi, I haven’t visited the blog for 2-3 years! Are there any news, breakthroughs or presentations? Kind regards, Kay

  111. Andrea Rossi

    Kay:
    Welcome back !
    For all the updates, please go to
    http://www.ecat.com
    and visit all the links you will find there,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  112. Anonymous

    Dr Rossi:
    I ordered the Ecat from a person that says he is authorizad from you to collect preorders: what do you suggest me to do ?

  113. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    To be sure that you pay the right price and have the real guarantee and assistance, we suggest you to send us copy of the pre-order you signed; please send it to
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Remember that we do not accept any advanced payment before we contact the client to turn his pre-order into a regular order.
    We want not to collect money before we are sure to deliver the pre-ordered items.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  114. Daniel Hawk Hicks

    What is wonderful Dr. Rossi is that with your invention people will be able to live “off grid” just about anywhere; a huge boon in a world that seeks more and more central control.

    Truly this is about to be the dawn of a new age of freedom for humanity.

    Daniel Hawk Hicks : D

  115. Andrea Rossi

    Daniel Hawk Hicks:
    Thank you for your repeated support
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    P.S.
    Your comment is the # 67000 of this blog

  116. Daniel Hawk Hicks

    I imagine that one would be able to configure the devices to the power requirements of the Kiln. DC could be used, yes?

    What is wonderful Dr. Rossi is that with your invention people will be able to live “off grid” just about anywhere; a huge boon in a world that seeks more and more central control.

    Continued blessings to you and your team. Truly this is about to be the dawn of a new age of freedom for humanity.

    Daniel Hawk Hicks : D

  117. Andrea Rossi

    Daniel Hawk Hicks:
    Thank you for your trust and support to our Team
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  118. Daniel Hawk Hicks

    Thank you for your reply regarding Kilns. I imagine that one would be able to configure the devices to the power requirements of the Kiln. DC could be used, yes?

    What is wonderful Dr. Rossi is that with your invention people will be able to live “off grid” just about anywhere; a huge boon in a world that seeks more and more central control.

    Continued blessings to you and your team. Truly this is about to be the dawn of a new age of freedom for humanity.

    Daniel Hawk Hicks : D

  119. Dr. Guenter Stromburg

    Dear Andrea,
    is neutrinovoltaic-energy a danger to the market chances of your inventions?
    Kind regards from Guenter

  120. Andrea Rossi

    Dr Guenter Stromburg:
    No,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  121. Steven Nicholes Karels

    To JONP readers,

    An Easy Way to use NGU 100W units for Grid Power at a Residential Location.

    EnPhase has been used in solar panel applications to safely convert the DC power from solar panels into useful Grid power by using micro-inverters, such as the EnPhase IQ7A and IQ8A series. Each micro-inverter is fed grid power (e.g., 240VAC) and it “pushes” the converter solar DC energy back into the Grid in-phase with the Grid power.
    In solar panel usage, there is one micro-inverter for each solar panel. A number of micro-inverters may be paralleled, (usually 10 or more) onto a single Grid line.

    Typical power output of one micro-inverter is over 300W, although the output power decreases as the solar panel output power decreases. The solar panel outputs a voltage in the 30VDC to 50VDC regime with lower voltages as clouds or lowering light conditions occur. The micro-inverters usually have a startup voltage level of about 30 VDC.

    Consider using three NGU 100W units to provide DC power to a micro-inverter. If the three NGU 100W units are tied in series, they will produce 36VDC at 300W of power. This is sufficient to activate a micro-inverter and the micro-inverter will produce about 290W of Grid power, when Grid power is applied to them.

    In the US, most wood framed residential homes have vertical studs on a 16” center. The micro-inverter has an attachment plate with slotted holes. The micro-inverter could easily be positioned on one of the studs and screwed to the stud to physically secure it.

    The micro-inverter has two connectors: one for the incoming DC power; and the other connector is where Grid power is applied and produced power flows back into the Grid. There is also a status LED what shows operation, faults, etc.

    Consider a 5” by 18” by 1/16” aluminum panel mounted above the micro-inverter. The panel would be used to support the three NGU 100W units. Also, on the panel would be an 8-position terminal board which would be used to receive the output of each NGU 100W unit and connect them serially. I would also include a digital voltmeter to present the voltage level of 36VDC coming from the three NGU 100W units tied serially. I would also include a rocker switch to manually turn off or on the panel. In addition, I would place a strain relief clamp to secure the DC output going to the input of the micro-inverter.

    There are commercially available Grid power cables for the micro-inverters available from the solar panel suppliers. A cable can be ordered with N number of micro-inverter connectors, where N is the number of micro-inverters that are used on a single AC line, terminating at a circuit breaker, usually a 240VAC, 20Amp breaker.

    The panel would be easy to fabricate (drilling holes). I would use inserts for the wood studs and thumbscrews to attach the panel to the two studs.

    I would also tie the power grounds from the Grid to both the panel and to the micro-inverter for safety reasons.

    When Grid power fails, the micro-inverter automatically stops providing power to the Grid. This is for the safety of Grid personnel.

  122. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous and All the Readers:
    No, Leonardo Corporation has not granted a commercial license in Germany, so far.
    If you want to place a pre-order, please go to
    http://www.ecatorders.com
    fill up the pre-order form and send it back to us, after reading and accepting all the conditions.
    When we will start the deliveries, we will contact only the Clients that sent us their signed pre-orders to us.
    Please do not send your pre-orders or, worse, anticipate money to anybody telling you he is authorized to resell on our behalf.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  123. Anonymous

    Dr Rossi,
    Do you have any licensee in Germany where I can order the Ecat ?

  124. Dagfinn G.

    Dear Dr. Rossi, according to the question of Mr. Hawk and your answer – and because at your website there is a picture of a ready(?) 3KW ecat ngu:
    There are many cheap 2KW electric heater, please plug one to your ecat and show how it works in a short video.
    Maybe it is more important for many people, than an EV test.
    Best regards
    Dagfinn G.

  125. Andrea Rossi

    Dagfinn G.:
    Thank you for your opinion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  126. Jean Pierre

    Hi Andrea.
    I think that it would be unwise to site any NGU device on the outside of a spacecraft travelling to the Moon or Mars and expecting it to function correctly without adequate protection from the very harsh environment of the vacuum of space.

    Although you have no actual experience with the NGU in space- related things, does your very considerable experimentation, and theoretical investigations, lead you to suspect that an NGU connected properly to a suitable load in your lab and working to design might not function as required if it found itself magically transported and sited within a spacecraft cabin with identical environmental conditions as the lab while travelling to the Moon or Mars?

    I am really musing on the possibility that in the above scenario the NGU might not be able to function correctly, or at all, if it were likely to be adversely affected by large gravity field strength changes such as zero g in transit or 1/10 g on the Moon or 1/3 g on Mars when compared with 1g on Earth. An exotic idea,I know, but life at atomic level seems very strange to me, so why not consider this strange notion?

    I really hope that someday soon we will see NGU devices as part of interplanetary travel, providing electrical power when solar cells cannot provide enough energy, and removing the necessity for nuclear devices as well.

    I look forward to a successful EV demonstration in a few months time. Good luck with your strenuous efforts.

    Jean Pierre

  127. Andrea Rossi

    Jean Pierre:
    In future: presently our priority is normal domestic and industrial market,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  128. Daniel Hawk Hicks

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    Could this technology be configured to produce controllable heat directly for a ceramic kiln?

    May God continue to bless you and your team in your work for all humanity.

    Daniel Hawk Hicks 🙂🖐️👍🙏

    Daniel Hawk

  129. Andrea Rossi

    Daniel Hawk Hicks:
    The Ecat NGU produces electric energy; with electric energy it is possible to do anything that can be powered with it; controllable heat can be made by a controllable electric heater,
    Thank you for your blessings to our Team,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  130. Martina

    Dr Rossi,
    Which is the most important keyword among the ones suggested in the abstract of
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Best,
    Martina

  131. Andrea Rossi

    Martina:
    Probably “Darwin Lagrangian”, which describes the interaction to the order v^2/c^2 between two charges in the vacuum (see paragraph 2.3 in the paper you cited)
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  132. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    “Worldwide, more than 80 million people live at least 8,202 feet (2,500 meters) above sea level, mainly in South America, Central Asia and East Africa.

    Some of the highest permanent settlements include Wenquan in China’s Qinghai province, at a staggering 15,980 feet (4,870 m) above sea level, and Korzok in India, around 15,000 feet (4,572 m) above sea level.

    However, one place towers above them all. Nestled in the Peruvian Andes is a town that is nicknamed “Devil’s Paradise.” Officially named La Rinconada, its 50,000 inhabitants live between 16,404 feet (5,000 m) and 17,388 feet (5,300 m) above sea level, making it the highest permanent settlement on Earth.”

  133. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Interesting,
    Cheers
    A.R.

  134. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    If you are planning to use NGU technology with solar panels, you may need to cool the NGU units or change their specified temperature range.

    “If you’re thinking of installing solar panels, it’s important to know the temperature range that they’ll work in. Solar panels generally have an operating temperature range of – 40 to 185 degrees Fahrenheit.”

    “In extremely low-lying areas, especially along the Persian Gulf (near sea level), summer temperatures can reach 48 °C (118 °F). Average low temperatures in summer are typically over 20 °C (68 °F) and in the south can sometimes exceed 30 °C (86 °F). Record high temperatures above 50 °C (122 °F) have been reached in many areas of the desert, partly because its overall elevation is relatively low.”

  135. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestions,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  136. 5. 10 m / 33 ft below sea level

    This part might use some clarification. If one goes to the lowest point on Earth in the Dead Sea (~400m below sea level) it shouldn’t affect things too much. Day to day fluctuations in barometric pressure may be somewhat comparable with respect to that change in elevation.

    Perhaps you mean operating in underwater environments where pressure increase much more rapidly?

  137. Andrea Rossi

    Steve Albers:
    No, the issue consists only in the operative limits imposed to the Ecat to maintain its granted performances,
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  138. Andrea Rossi

    Thank you for the information: we’ll make tests finalized to test also this issue,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  139. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Your minimum altitude spec will preclude certain locations in the USA.

    “Badwater Basin is the lowest point in North America at 282 ft (86 m) below sea level.”

  140. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Can you share?
    1. Are you testing the NGU 100W and 3kW units for high temperature – if so, how high?
    2. Are you testing the NGU 100W and 3kW units for low temperature – if so, how low?
    3. Are you testing the NGU 100W and 3kW units for vibration and shock susceptibility?
    4. Are you testing the NGU 100W and 3kW units for high altitude (pressure) – if so, how high?
    5. Are you testing the NGU 100W and 3kW units for low altitude (pressure) – if so, how low?
    6. Any space environment testing – vacuum, radiation, etc.?

  141. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    1. +50 °C / 122 F
    2. -20 °C / 4 F
    3. yes
    4. 3000 m / 9842 ft
    5. 10 m / 33 ft below sea level
    6. we tested absence of ionizing radiations emissions; the Ecat is not supposed to be installed in vacuum chambers
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  142. Chris Beall

    Yet another energy technology, which seems to be focused on the low-end, for now.
    https://www.cnn.com/videos/business/2024/05/20/artificial-photosynthesis-anna-stewart-pkg-05184pseg1-cnni-business.cnn

  143. Andrea Rossi

    Chris Beall:
    Very interesting,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  144. Wilfried

    Dear Andrea,

    Have you made any progress with the E-Cat in terms of power density, so that it theoretically delivers sufficient power per weight for flight operations?

    Best Regards
    Wilfried

  145. Andrea Rossi

    Wilfried:
    Yes, we are working also on this issue,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  146. Steve D

    Dear Andrea Rossi
    You have responded before that the NGU has improved external interfaces for ecat control.
    1) This means there is no change in reactor design re Josè Ferreira question?
    2) Have you demonstrated that the EV BMS and NGU can now satisfactorily communicate?
    3) Is the the current sigma trial being done in conjunction with an EV or with a bench top configuration?
    4) Are you still working on a heating load suitable for the ecat?
    5) Will the heater have an ecat powered fan (inductance/ battery issue) or will it heat by convection only?
    Thank you

  147. Andrea Rossi

    Steve D:
    1- no
    2- stillworking on it
    3- both
    4- yes
    5- depends on the situations
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  148. Giulia

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Thank you for your dedication to the Ecat and its importance for our Planet; at your age you could retire and enjoy your life, but you never give up your endeavors to deliver the Ecat NGU.
    God bless you and your team,
    Giulia

  149. Andrea Rossi

    Giulia:
    Thank you for your kind support to our Team,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  150. Gavino Mamia

    Dear Doctor Rossi
    There are millions of Caravans and Camper in the world and they are constantly increasing. I’m thinking about it for when I retire and have a lot of time to travel.
    The main problem, due to poor insulation, is thermal shock.
    Gas or diesel heaters, or generators for air conditioning and other utilities are used.
    All this costs, consumes, makes noise, is dangerous.
    A few photovoltaic panels on the roof are not enough.
    Your Ecat, 1 KW and above, would be a godsend.
    Personally, before buying a camper I will wait for the Ecat to arrive on the market.
    Am I doing well?
    Good job and hurry up.

  151. Andrea Rossi

    Gavino Mamia:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  152. Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers,
    Please find on
    http://www.rossilivecat.com
    new comments published on other posts of this blog,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  153. Dr. Rossi,

    I have an application for the NGU in mind but it involves movement of the device and possible physical shocks through deceleration. I worry that the components, particularly the orientation of the vacuum chamber with anode/cathode, might be adversely impacted by decelerations.

    Knowing that the internal components are highly confidential, can you at least say if the axis of the chamber lays parallel to and strongly mounted to any circuit boards?

    Warm regards,
    Greg

  154. Andrea Rossi

    Gregory Daigle:
    The Ecat SKLep NGU can resist to accelerations, decelerations just like EV batteries. Obviously, for anomalous applications we will supply specific information when we will contact our Clients to propose the delivery of the units they made the pre-orders of.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  155. Anonymous

    I understood that you said here that the test with the EV powered by the Ecat will be made with the Ecat directly connected with the battery of the EV: is this correct ?

  156. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    No, it is not; the Ecat NGU needs a complex system of capacities and A.I. to interface with the BMS of the car manufacturer, that is designed to forbid external connections. This has been the most difficult obstacle to our Team,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  157. Josè Ferreira

    Dr Rossi,
    I followed the answer you gave to Frank Acland on May 15 about the paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Reading the Nelson patent and the paragraphs you referred to I think I understood how the Ecat works. Basically Ecat SKLep and Ecat NGU are the same thing, correct ?
    Thank you for the work of you and your team,
    Josè

  158. Andrea Rossi

    Josè Ferreira:
    Correct,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  159. Roberto

    I agree

  160. Gene Quong

    I just used my Dewalt portable hammer drill which requires 12 VDC to run. The drill at full power lasts about 15 minutes. You could make a live demonstration in a local church with the pastor
    looking a portable plexiglass cage. Just verify that they are no hidden power sources by using a Geiger counter. Then run the demonstration for 12 hours. Have the entire church watch! The next
    step is to get the Pope to watch. Then tell everyone else to bugger off. You have many enemies, by doing this demonstration you will have God on your side.

  161. Andrea Rossi

    Gene Quong:
    I appreciate the spirit of your suggestion, but I don’t think that a strumentalization of the Church with propagandistic goals should be a good idea: we serve God every day also by doing our work with Faith.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  162. Andrea Rossi

    ELVIRA Jean Claude:
    Merci beaucoup pour votre gentil comment et encouragement
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  163. ELVIRA Jean-Claude

    Bonjour Docteur ROSSI et bonjour aussi à toute votre équipe

    Je vous suis depuis des décennies et je tiens à vous dire combien je suis impatient de voir vos démonstrations…je crois fermement que cela va bouleverser et changer le monde…je crois que votre inventions va amener la Paix et l’Espérence pour l’Humanité entière…dépêchez-vous s’il vous plait…bientôt,j’aurais 80 ans et j’espère voir cette Révolution…et ainsi laisser de l’espoir à toute ma descendance… Je vous remercie du fond du coeur pour ce que vous êtes entrain de faire pour les hommes du monde entier…
    Jean-Claude ELVIRA

  164. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear JONP Users

    Progress Report on my Home Residential eCat NGU Design

    I am basing the design on 100W eCat NGU modules.

    My average electrical power consumption over the last year varies from 1.0 kW to 2.5 kW. The variation correlated with the summer months where I use central air-conditioning (electric) and it is lowest during the winter months when I use my gas furnace. My water heater is gas.

    I have a Tesla Wall charger. The above average kW includes the use of the Tesla Wall charger.

    For my conceptual design, I am planning to use 16 100W NGU units, connected by terminal boards in series, so that a power source of 1.6 kW at 12 VDC (and 8.33 Amps) is available. Conceptually, I could add an additional 16 100W NGU units and feed the NGU-generated power into the second PV input of the 6000XP. The 6000XP is rated to handle up to 8kW of PV input power. The serial connection is required to provide a voltage acceptable to the inverter.

    The off-grid inverter is an EG4 6000XP. One, with the option of a second 6000XP unit, will be used.

    The battery will be a Ruixu RX-LFP48100 Battery with a wall mount option. The 6000XP will be programmed to limit the battery charge and discharge current to 50 Amps. A single battery will connect to the 6000XP inverter.

    The 6000XP will accept the power from the serially connected NGU units when the power is fed to the inverter’s PV input. The 6000XP communicates with the battery via a comm cable.

    The battery serves as an additional energy source when transient conditions occur, such as the air-conditioning start-up.

    The priorities on the inverter will be: (1) the PV input (i.e., the NGU power); (2) the battery (set up to discharge between 90% and 10%) but limited in current; and (3) the electrical grid input – limited to 50AMP @ 240VAC.

    If the battery is discharged to the battery’s lowest allowed level, then Grid power will supplement the NGU power.

    The Tesla Wall unit will not be tied to the inverter output, but it will receive power directly from the electrical grid. The justification is that it is a high current requirement and only runs a short time, so that I can achieve reasonably fast recharge times.

    Optionally, the electric oven and stove may not be connected to the inverter output as they are high current loads.

    Conceptually, a second 6000XP and battery could be paralleled if additional power is needed.

    Current pricing:

    EG4 6000XP inverter – $1,399 USD
    Ruixu RX-LFP48100 Battery – $1,199USD

    A different design philosophy is needed compared to Solar inverters where the PV power is available only a few hours per day. In the PV case, the battery must have sufficient capacity to handle power demands when the PV is not outputting power (e.g., at night).

    With the 24/7, 100,000 hours of the NGU, a different approach, I believe, is needed.

    Thoughts?

  165. Anonymous

    What do you think about the prototype of Prometheus ?

  166. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Interesting proposal to produce hydrogen without electrolysis.
    Good luck !
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  167. Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    You have posted on X a new photo of a high vacuum system (https://e-catworld.com/2024/05/15/leonardo-corporation-tweets-photo-of-high-vacuum-system/, https://twitter.com/LeonardoCorpor3/status/1790532998875517374)

    1. Is the high vacuum system necessary to manufacture the E-Cat NGUs?

    2. Can you explain what is the purpose of the high vacuum system?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  168. Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Thank you for the links.
    Answers:
    1- Yes
    2- Because it is necessary to perform like described here:
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    See par 2.1 ,5, 6 and Nelson reference in Abstract
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  169. Andrea Rossi

    Gerard Huebl:
    Both,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  170. Gerald Huebl

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    you recently said that the NGU has reached Sigma 4 – is this valid for:
    1. the device (the “hardware”)
    2. the control system
    3. or both?

    thanks for your never-ending willingness to answer all the many questions from the curious crowd!
    all the best to you and you team,
    Gerald

  171. Anonymous

    Dr Rossi,
    How many are the probabilities that you will make a demonstration of an EV powered by the Ecat SKLep NGU within this year ?

  172. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Today I’d say 90%,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  173. Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    Please go to
    http://www.rossilivecat.com
    to find comments published in other posts of this blog,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  174. Lars Lindberg

    Dear Andrea,
    With zero point energy do you think it is possible to get out all the energy you need for as long as you need? Is there something consumed with zero point energy? If a sociaty learns how to fully that advantage of zero point energy, there is no need for any other energy source?

  175. Andrea Rossi

    Lars Lindberg:
    I think humanity will always need an aggregated system of all the available energy sources intelligently integrated,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  176. Simon

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    could there be future problems with the naming rights of your company which is the same like the italian armaments concern Leonardo?
    Best regards
    Simon

  177. Andrea Rossi

    Simon:
    We are not and want not to be involved in any army issues,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  178. Pavel

    Dr Rossi,
    Which is the rationale of the reverse difference of entropy that generates the zero point energy ?

  179. Anonymous

    Can you tell us which Sigma level the NGU reached so far ?

  180. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    4
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  181. Anonymous

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    I imagine you are looking for the Sigma 5 with some Ecat NGU like the model shown on Ecatworld; am I correct ?
    Thank you for the work you and your team are doing so many years since to complete successfully a so important enterprise.
    All the best,
    Anonymous

  182. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Thank you for your support.
    Answer: you are correct,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  183. Gavino Mamia

    Wilfried
    human beings will always use the latest technologies to wage war. even if we go back to the stone age he will continue to wage wars with femurs and stones

  184. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Wilfried.

    Time to take a deep breath… Ecat technology, like any other new technology, can be used for many reasons and purposes. In my opinion, it is likely to be used in applications where continuous, constant level electrical energy over a very long period of time is needed.

    There are many application areas and I have in the past suggested a few – baseload electrical power generation, long duration transportation (aviation, marine, automotive), long duration communications, lighting.

    Most military applications are too short-lived to find Ecat technology advantageous. But there are likely some military applications that some mind somewhere will find using this technology. As far as I can tell, this technology cannot be used to generate a weapon effect, like a blast or explosion.

    Before declaring that our species is not ready for this technology, perhaps, one should consider possible applications and see if the benefits outweigh the risks. The same thing we individually do every day on our daily drive to and from work.

  185. Wilfried

    @ Steven Nicholes Karels

    I don’t understand their proposals. The first thing the unregulated market will do with the E-Cat is develop durable, pathetic and insidious weapons.
    Humanity is not ready for this energy source.

    Best Regards
    Wilfried

  186. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Long duration (years) Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) are being developed. Ecat Technology could play a key role in providing long-duration electrical power with no acoustic noise generation.

  187. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  188. Paul Dodgshun

    Sir Jim Ratcliffe is founder and chairman of INEOS Group and a successful industrialist in the UK. I agree with his view on REX cars. The REX generator is not involved in meeting peak power demand when the ‘pedal is pressed to the metal’. A REX car looks like a fit for a modest number of SKLep DC generators to operate steadily. Would this avoid the current difficulties with fitting SKLeps to provide peak power? It would certainly reduce the capital cost of the power provision in a car.

    https://www.telegraph.co.uk/business/2024/05/09/demand-electric-cars-dried-up-rethink/
    The interim solution today which serves the needs of the consumer is either the hybrid or electric vehicle with range extender (REX). I like the latter. Bear with me.

    The REX is a fully electric car. It is always electric. Let’s say it has a range of 300km. You can charge it in the normal manner. However, tucked away under the bonnet is a small engine and a generator. The engine powers the generator, when requested, which in turn charges the battery. The engine is not connected to the pedal, so is simple, efficient and reliable.

    The car has a modest fuel tank and in total the car has a range of, let’s say, 700km. You can charge it in the normal way, or you can fill up at a gas station. Why would you ever buy a fully electric car when you have this option of an electric vehicle with a range extender and complete absence of range anxiety?

  189. Andrea Rossi

    Paul Dodgshun:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  190. Max

    Dr. Rossi,
    Assuming you have herd the phrase “Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence” surely you must have done the EV test already to make such a claim. If this is the case than why on earth is this technology not available in production yet? If it’s to fund the legal battles, Get a lone! if Trump can You can too. Just start the process already! Best regards, Max

  191. Andrea Rossi

    Max:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  192. Prof

    Dr Rossi,
    Here are the stats of your papers I found today on
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-CatSK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Total Readings: 141020, of which 129270 only for “Ecat SK and long range particle interactions” (more than 99.9% of 1.5 million publications on Researchgate)
    Recommendations: 11063 (more than 99% of 1.5 million papers on RG)
    Research Interest Score: 2861 (more than 99% of 1.5 million publications on RG)
    Most readings by Cathegories: Energy Engineers, Theoretical Physicists, Chemical Engineers, Researchers, Power Engineers
    Most readings by Seniority: PhD students, Professors, Seniors
    Most readings by Geographic Areas: Europe, America
    And counting…
    Best,
    Prof

  193. Andrea Rossi

    Prof:
    Thank you for the update,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  194. Andrea Rossi

    P.Mueller:
    1- I already explained why this is not possible
    2- I never said that I am sure we will be able to start the deliveries this year, albeit we hope so
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  195. P.Müller

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    1) have you ever thought about to start the production and delivery while you still have not reached the aim of one million pre-orders, but because of you are near to the aim and the pre-orders enter steadily or maybe increasingly?
    2) Are you still sure to start production and delivery this year? Could you mention the presumably month for the start?
    Best regards
    P.Müller

  196. Michel

    About your answer to Steven N. Karels, after 100,000 hours the Ecat will have to be substituted,or will it be possible to refresh it with spare parts ?

  197. Andrea Rossi

    Michel:
    It will be possible to refresh them with spare parts,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  198. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Are you really planning to disable the output of NGU devices when their cumulative operating hours reach 100,000 hours?

  199. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    No,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  200. Maico

    dear DR. Rossi,

    I was very impressed by the response he gave to reader Gavino.

    The intelligent observation that was made to you gave you the opportunity to let us know a very important detail about your product. And precisely that the pre-assembled module assemblies that you will supply as a product (purely by way of example I would cite the 3kw module) already have the EMS (Ecat Management System) component inside them.

    That is, a component specifically designed to “balance” the consumption of the modules in the event of energy requests lower than the plate data of the assembly. This ensures that the “overall” life of the product remains very high, preventing some modules from remaining active longer than others.

    These advanced functions, at least as far as I know, are “economically sustainable” only for already industrialized solutions and therefore indirectly you are giving us evidence of the excellent state of development of your products (i.e. ready for marketing, as soon as it reaches one million of “verified” pre-orders).

    Did I interpret your response correctly?

    Regards Maico

  201. Andrea Rossi

    Maico:
    Correct,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  202. Steven Nicholes Karels

    How I see Residential Application of eCat NGU Technology Proceeding

    1. At $2.50USD per Watt of provided electrical power, the eCat technology is expensive. It takes a long time (maybe years) to offset the initial cost in terms of grid electrical costs.

    2. There are safety concerns about supplying excess electrical power back to the electrical grid. We don’t want to injure grid technicians working on what they believe is an unpowered grid line.

    3. There are grid infrastructure concerns if too many residential sites provide their excess power to the electrical grid, without some type of control from the electrical grid so as to not overload the electrical grid.

    These said, I suggest that the sizing of the eCat NGU units should be based on the average (or alternatively the minimum) monthly use average for the residential home. If so implemented, the power from the electrical grid will be used when additional power is needed, such as with air-conditioning, or heating needs (furnace, oven, stove, water heater). This would significantly lower the grid consumption making more power available or reducing the need for additional power generation plants.

    It is likely that some residential battery storage could augment the residential eCat NGU units to take advantage of the daily variations in power consumption — the battery is discharged during the daytime peak loads and recharged during the nighttime periods of low electrical usage. There are commercial systems that exist and could be used for such an application.

    For other applications, such as Baseload commercial electrical generation, other logic will apply.

    Comments?

  203. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  204. Anonymous

    And in these outsourcing facilities will be made the whole Ecats or only parts of them ?

  205. Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Parts of them,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  206. Aninymous

    Dr Rossi,
    Do you think that the application of a capacitance could help the coupling between the Ecat and the battery of an EV ?

  207. Andrea Rossi

    Aninymous,
    USA, Europe, Asia.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  208. Gavino Mamia

    Dear Doctor Rossi
    I’m assuming that the Ecat has some sort of internal counter that will stop it once it reaches 100,000 hours.
    At home I have the limit of 3 KW which is enough for all my appliances.
    When I’m not at home the energy consumption is low, just the fridge and the router, this changes a lot when I return.
    Assuming I replace my 3KW electricity contract with an equivalent 3KW Ecat.
    From what I understand the counter also counts when you actually only use a few modules, so would it be better to have two Ecats, a small one for when I’m not at home and a larger one for when I return?
    Or have you already implemented an artificial intelligence that will make sure to use the “freshest” modules?
    I had already asked a similar question and you replied that you would work on this possibility.
    Good job to you and your entire team

  209. Andrea Rossi

    Gavino Mamia:
    Thank you for your wishes.
    Good question.
    Yes, the Ecat system will have an EMS ( Ecat Management System ) , sort of an A.I. that balances the consume of the modules.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  210. Anonymous

    Dr Rossi,
    can you say where are located the facilities to manufacture even with outsourcing the Ecats ?

  211. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You and your staff will likely chose another approach but this is my thinking on how to merge NGU technology into a PV solar park.

    If the solar panels are tied in a string and go to a string inverter, then the approach would be to use two diodes (a 60VDC, 30Amp, 0.7 VDC forward drop, < 1 milliamp reverse current, cost is less than $3USD each) and let the highest voltage leave the PV panel going to the string inverter. Typical PV voltages in STC are around 40 VDC and power is around 400-500W. Not the most efficient but simple and reliable.

    If the solar panels each go to a micro-inverter, then replace the micro-inverter with a dual input micro-inverter. The PV solar panel output goes into one input. The NGU goes into the other input. This gives maximum efficiency.

    Number of 100W NGUs – I suggest 3, outputting a total of 36VDC. This keeps the total power down, which increases component reliability, provides less power at night, when the demand is less.

    Thoughts?

  212. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  213. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    1. How many of the current NGU 100W units have you been able to successfully produce?
    2. Of those produced, how many have undergone testing?
    3. Can you ascertain a yield rate (number of units that passed testing divided by number of units produced)?

  214. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    We will start the massive manufacturing only after reaching the well known target of consolidated pre-orders. We are making prototypes for testing and now we have a series of prototypes that work with the necessary reliability; therefore we are ready to start anytime a massive manufacturing for at least 500000 units per year, besides we have already organized an outsourcing system to further increase the production.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  215. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Kuwait Solar Project – a non-government project

    “A group of energy companies are planning to build a 5-GW solar power complex in the north of Kuwait that will involve an investment of about USD 3.5 billion (EUR 3.1bn), Kuwaiti daily Al Anba said on Tuesday, citing sources familiar with the matter.

    The initiative has been submitted to the Cabinet Office and then referred to Kuwait’s minister of finance for a review, the report says. The developers are seeking state approval to build the park as a private investment project and then sell the produced electricity to the Ministry of Electricity, Water and Renewable Energy.”

    Thoughts?

  216. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for the information contained in your last two comments,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  217. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    A Saudi Arabia Application for NGU Technology

    “ACWA Power, a local utilities company, signed an agreement with Water and Electricity Holding Company (Badeel) to build the world’s largest single-site solar-power plant in Al Shuaibah, Mecca province. The solar-power facility is expected to start operations by end‑2025, with a generation capacity of 2,060 MW.”

    “Saudi Arabia seeks to add 15 GW of renewable energy capacity.”

    Suggestions:

    1. Divide the 2 GW of solar into two identical 1 GW solar farms.
    2. One equipped with NGU technology, and the other not so equipped.
    3. Monitor the output of each for some period of time, say, one year,
    4. Cost reimbursement could either be upfront or paid by the additional energy produced.

    To implement, you would need to develop a field installable kit, that rapidly facilitated integration with the existing solar panel and cabling. You might also want to set up a local network for monitoring and status reporting.

    If so implemented, that would give you 1 GW of NGU units in total.

    Thoughts?

  218. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another NGU Application – H71M-PM Hall-effect thruster

    NASA has developed an ion thruster that requires 1 kW (or less) for 15,000 hours (or more). It has a high Specific Impulse of around 1,800 sec. A perfect application for the NGU.

  219. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels,
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  220. Martyn Aubrey

    Steven Nicholes Karels

    Hello Steven,

    I agree with your vision.

    Also, it is always wise to keep enough reserve power to make a good cup of coffee!

    Best regards,
    Martyn

  221. Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    You recently published a photo of the current peaks that occur in the core of the E-Cat NGU. We see a relatively even distribution of the current peaks that remain quite stable in terms of amplitude within a certain range.
    In the trend of recent interesting questions from readers, I was wondering how the E-Cat NGU adapts to a variable load? Does the amplitude of the current peaks decrease, or does the number of peaks per unit time decrease by lengthening the intervals?
    In the hypothetical case of an extension of the intervals, does it seem likely to me that the life of the reactor core would increase proportionately?

    Kind regards,
    Koen

  222. Andrea Rossi

    Koen Vandewalle:
    Sorry, the issues you raised are confidential, apart what has been written in the paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  223. WaltC

    Dr. Rossi,

    A simple candidate for killer-application that has, so far, received limited attention would be an “E-Cat Portable Power Station”. Based on the Portable Power Stations available on Amazon, the E-Cat would have a natural superiority in that application and it should also be a good match, price-wise.

    About “Portable Power Station” (PPS) devices:
    – These are simple devices: {rechargeable batteries + inverter + power outputs} in a compact, portable package.
    – Intended primarily for Indoor/Outdoor, Camping, Emergency, Home (e.g., blackouts) and Portable Use.
    – Most PPS provide 110v AC and USB (DC) power outputs.
    – Recharge power can come from Home (AC), Car (12v) or Solar Panel(s).
    – Runtimes are typically 1 hour at the rated capacity.

    Take as an example a top-selling 300W Portable Power Station with over 8200 ratings (on AZ):
    – It costs $229 (currently) and can sustain 62W output for 4 hours. (Which equals $3.60 per 4h-sustained-W).
    – Depending on the situation, 4 hours may be vastly insufficient, but recharging is required, nonetheless.
    – A 100W E-Cat PPS could be comparably priced, with comparable output, and provide vastly superior runtime.

    Summary: A family of “E-Cat Portable Power Station” devices– 100W … 1000W– would allow stepwise access into a new market, provide customers with a low-cost entry point and offer unmatched runtimes. The unique and superior runtime could likely support a higher price-premium if required initially.

    Best Wishes,
    WaltC

  224. Andrea Rossi

    WaltC:
    Thank you foryour suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  225. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You posted “I already answered to this issue.” I believe this was in regards to my discussion of a Current Limiting Circuit.

    I agree that the NGU unit should just shut down when a demand greater than its maximum power rating is required. It makes no sense for the NGU unit to have additional circuitry or logic to accommodate demand beyond its specified performance. Such considerations should be made by the system integrator who is using the NGU units.

    This is identical to a power supply which has an over-current level, that when exceeded, it automatically shuts down the operation of the power supply. When the load is removed, the power supply will reactivate, either with a manual reset or automatically.

  226. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  227. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Martyn Aubrey,

    My vision for the NGU units is that they feed a smart inverter, similar to an all-in-one solar inverter, where the solar inputs are replaced with NGU units. In this environment, the NGU units would run at their maximum level, but no more. Any excess energy would be stored in included batteries which would handle turn on transient loads.

    If the requested demand was greater than what the overall system could supply, then gid power would supplement the battery and NGU power.

    As with all electrical systems, circuit breakers would protect the conductors from excessive current flow.

    So, in a building or industrial setting, some protection equipment will be needed to handle electrical demands greater than what the system is designed to handle. Similar to the circuit breaker opening when you plug in that last additional coffee pot.

  228. Martyn Aubrey

    Hello Steven,

    My concern about overloading the Ecat supply was not so much about individual installations, where I agree with Andrea that there would be good oversight over the total wattage of the individual devices taking power from each Ecat.

    I was thinking more about a situation where a multi-Ecat configuration supplies multiple consumers in, for example, a large building or an off-grid complex.

    Any consumer may add an extra device to their power outlets and not realise how close they could bring the higher level system to its switch-off point. This careless addition of say a kettle or a heater might trip the Ecat supply and cause a power blackout for the other users.

    As you said, a current limiting circuit breaker for each individual spur would be a good solution.

    However, it is unlikely that any of the equally rated spurs would be used at full capacity all of the time, so there would need to be a considerable reserve margin of power to meet the full usage if occasionally required.

    This would be a general power distribution matter rather than an Ecat power output matter, to avoid supply contention.

    Interesting regards,
    Martyn

  229. R.Brand

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    have i read it correctly that you will licence the ecat also to other producers?
    How much will be the license fee per 100 Watt ecat?
    Best regards
    R.Brand

  230. Andrea Rossi

    R.Brand:
    Requests of license must be addressed to
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  231. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Martyn Aubrey,

    One possible solution is to design and place a Current Limiting Circuit between the NGU unit(s) and the load. The Current limiting Circuit will limit the current being drawn from the NGU unit(s) so the NGU unit(s) do not shutdown. The output of the Current Limiting Circuit will reduce the voltage going to the load.

  232. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels,
    I already answered to this issue,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  233. Martyn Aubrey

    Dear Dr Rossi,

    You answered to Steve D that the Ecat shuts down when V*I exceeds the power rating.
    Will there be a warning indication when the output power approaches the cut-off threshold?
    Many thanks for your answer.

    Kind regards,
    Martyn Aubrey

  234. Andrea Rossi

    Martyn Aubrey:
    With the Ecat will happen exactly the same thing that would happen if you exceed the power installed in your house by your energy provider, for example connecting too many appliances at the same time; suppose you have a contract to supply a maximum power of 5 kW: this means that you can connect loads that totalize a consume of max 5 kWh/h, e.g. one 2 kW heater, one 2 kW refrigerator and additional series of appliances for a total of 1 kW of power, this way consuming a total of 5 kWh/h of energy: that’s fine so far…but if you add to the connections any further appliance, the general switch of your house will shut down all; analogically, the same would happen with the Ecat system. To fix the issue, as you surely already know, all you have to do is to disconnect some appliance to reduce the consume within the limit of 5 kWh/h, and the light will be back again. I am sure that you already experienced this solace,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  235. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I reviewed a projection that the State of Texas will need to double its baseload capacity, currently around 150 GW, within the next ten years to meet:

    1. Population growth
    2. environmental change (Texas is getting warmer)
    3. Increase in industry.

    Perhaps you should adjust your business model to include electricity production?

    Thoughts?

  236. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestions,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  237. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another eCat application – large electric cranes

    “The world’s largest land-based electric crane is here to make construction even cleaner, and the technology could revolutionize offshore wind installations.

    As detailed by Interesting Engineering, the SK6,000 ring crane was delivered to Mammoet’s engineering hub in the Netherlands in April 2023.”

    While the crane is currently powered from the “dirty” electrical grid, it could be powered by eCat technology. This would make its operation free from electrical grid outages.

    It is also likely that seaborne cranes could use eCat technology.

    Thoughts?

  238. Steve D

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    2024-04-30 Steven Nicholes Karels asks,

    2. Is there a minimum load required for the voltage to be presented? If so, what is that load? 

    You response, No.

    I read minimum load to mean minimum current, therefore it refers to a load resistance value that cannot be exceeded. The readers question suggests a threshold. The distinction between open circuit and just sufficient current to maintain eg 12 V output. To rephrase the question:

    1) Is there a maximum load resistance where the ecat will still output a voltage? 

    2)  If so, what is that load resistance, or more generally what is the minimum current?

    3) When idle for storage, is the ecat in an “off” condition?

    4) Is there eg 12V or 0V output when it is “off”?

    5) If Q4 answer is 0V, the ecat is seen to have shut down at some maximum resistance or minimum current threshold. The user will need to know this threshold for application design.

    Thank You 

  239. Andrea Rossi

    Steve D:
    The Ecat system has a constant Voltage that depends on the assembly and the specific situation; R and I depend on the integrals deriving from the first Ohm’s Law:
    R = V/I
    Obviously V*I cannot exceed the power: if it does, the Ecat shuts down.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  240. Tom Kaminski

    Steven Nicholes Karels:

    A DC to DC converter wold be fine — you just need to verify that the eCat-NGU is generating significant power with no input. The eCat-NGU could also be placed in a shielded box to eliminate any electromagnetic coupling from a hidden source.

  241. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Tom Kaminski,

    I have been watching this technology for a long time. Historically, AR has been reluctant to have direct measurements of the output of the eCat technology devices.

    My suggested change to your request to AR is to place a DC/DC converter in line so that the measurement equipment measures the output of the DC/DC converter. Maybe a 12VDC to 24VDC output with a load of 6 Ohms rated to handle more than 100W? Measure the average voltage at the load and the average current. Perhaps use analog meters?

    Thoughts?

  242. Tom Kaminski

    You have stated that you will not restart the live demonstration of the eCat-NGU, but I hope that you would reconsider that decision. I would feel more comfortable telling others about your invention if I saw a demonstration that had clear measurements with common equipment. A demonstration that had an eCat-NGU, with output terminals connected to a mechanical panel meter measuring voltage, connected to a resistive load through a mechanical panel meter measuring current, and a two or more mechanical (or mercury/alcohol glass) thermometers measuring the temperature of the load and room temperature would work. If you demonstrated the 100 Watt eCat-NGU, the temperature rise would be very apparent, demonstrating power flow to the load independent of the voltage times current electrical power measurement.

    Everything associated with the measurements could be certified by experts beforehand. It could be connected to the eCat-NGU at your site. Though there will still be skeptics claiming the demonstration is fake, it would make many of us who have been following the eCat technology evolution more comfortable.

  243. Andrea Rossi

    Tom Kaminski:
    Thank you for your opinion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  244. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    A few questions on the NGU 100W module.

    1. Does the NGU 100W module present its voltage (e.g. 12 VDC) all the time, excluding times when an over current condition is occurring?
    2. Is there a minimum load required for the voltage to be presented? If so, what is that load?
    3. What happens as the load causes the NGU 100W unit to approach, meet, and then exceed the maximum current draw? Does the output voltage decrease after the point of maximum current draw?

    I am trying to understand how the NGU 100W module (in series with other identical units) will respond when MPPT occurs in a solar inverter where the PV input is replaced by a series connections of NGU 100W units.

  245. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    1- yes
    2- no
    3- the Ecat shuts down
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  246. Gavino Mamia

    Doctor Rossi
    Many affordable Chinese electric vehicle models are expected to arrive in Europe soon.
    The Italian state has provided incentives for the purchase of electric vehicles.
    Please speed up the test to prevent many from making a wrong purchase.
    Good work

  247. Andrea Rossi

    Gavino Mamia:
    You are right,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  248. Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another application for NGU technology

    Oxygen production for use at hospitals.

    “Medical oxygen is a regulated commodity that must be at least 82% pure, free from any contamination, and generated by an oil-free compressor. Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It changes from gas to liquid at a temperature of −182.96°C. The liquid oxygen can be solidified or frozen at a temperature of −218°C.”

    4 MJ of energy is needed to produce 1 kg of liquid oxygen.

    1 kg of liquid oxygen will generate 720 liters of medical oxygen.

    Assume a hospital with 1,000 beds, each requiring 5 liters per minute of medical oxygen = 5,000 liter per minute.

    energy needed per minute = 4 MJ * 5,000 liters per minute * 1kg/720 liters = ~ 28 MJ / minute

    power needed = 28 MJ /60 sec = ~ 0.5 MW.

    The hospital would not need to rely on external transportation of liquid oxygen which might fail when storms are present.

    Thoughts?

  249. Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.